生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 1447-1458.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020153

• 黄河流域生物多样性保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于“三类分区框架”的黄河流域生物多样性保护策略

曹越, 侯姝彧, 曾子轩, 王小珊, 王方邑, 赵智聪, 杨锐*()   

  1. 清华大学国家公园研究院/清华大学建筑学院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-15 接受日期:2020-08-31 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-10-23
  • 通讯作者: 杨锐
  • 作者简介: E-mail: yrui@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51978365)

Biodiversity conservation strategies for the Yellow River basin based on the Three Conditions Framework

Yue Cao, Shuyu Hou, Zixuan Zeng, Xiaoshan Wang, Fangyi Wang, Zhicong Zhao, Rui Yang*()   

  1. Institute for National Parks, Tsinghua University/ School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
  • Received:2020-04-15 Accepted:2020-08-31 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-10-23
  • Contact: Rui Yang

摘要:

黄河流域生态保护与高质量发展已上升为重大国家战略, 研究黄河流域的生物多样性保护策略具有重要意义。本文将“为实现生物多样性保护和可持续利用的全球三类分区”实施框架(简称“三类分区框架”)应用于黄河流域。该框架将国土空间分为城市与农田(C1景观)、共享景观(C2景观)和大面积荒野(C3景观)三类分区。基于该框架, 首先描述了黄河流域三类分区的空间格局; 进而基于文献研究, 识别了黄河流域三类分区中5类生物多样性的直接威胁因素, 包括栖息地丧失和退化、气候变化、污染、过度开发与不可持续的利用和外来物种入侵; 最后以系统性的思路从国土空间规划、自然保护地、生态城市、生态农业、生态工程和河流生态系统6个方面, 提出黄河流域的生物多样性保护策略。本文的分析框架也有潜力应用于其他区域的生物多样性保护策略研究。

关键词: 生物多样性, 自然保护地, 空间规划, 城市, 乡村, 荒野

Abstract:

Ecological conservation and high-quality development in the Yellow River basin have become national focuses for China. Therefore, it is important to study the biodiversity conservation strategies for the Yellow River basin. This paper utilizes the implementation framework of “Three Global Conditions for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use”, which divides all landscapes into three categories: cities and farms (C1 landscapes), shared lands (C2 landscapes), and large wild areas (C3 landscapes). This framework considers biodiversity conservation for all landscapes and is conducive for the implementation of conservation strategies. Here, we apply the three conditions framework to China on a regional scale. We first analyze the spatial pattern of the three conditions in the Yellow River basin. We then identify the direct threats to biodiversity in this region based on a literature review. Finally, we put forward some possible systematic biodiversity conservation strategies for this region.

The spatial pattern of the three conditions in the Yellow River basin. The Yellow River basin mainly consists of C1 and C2 landscapes, comprising 45.5% and 52.9% of the basin area, respectively. C1 landscapes are highly modified by human activity and are widely distributed in the Loess Plateau and the North China Plain. C2 landscapes are mainly distributed in the Ordos Plateau and the upper reach of the Yellow River. C3 landscapes are mainly distributed at the source region of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in the northwest region of the Ordos Plateau, taking up merely 1.6% of the basin area.

Direct threats to biodiversity in the Yellow River basin. Direct threats to biodiversity include: (1) Habitat loss and degradation. Urban expansion and industrial/mining development in C1 and C2 landscapes have directly resulted in habitat loss and degradation. The expansion of agricultural areas has led to reduction of natural habitats and wetlands. Additionally, road construction has resulted in habitat fragmentation and dam construction is threatening the river ecosystem. (2) Climate change. Climate warming and drying has negatively impacted C3 landscapes. In some C2 landscapes, vegetation has degraded. In C1 landscapes, climate change may further increase the demand for agricultural production, putting more pressures on nature. (3) Pollution. Cities and farms in C1 and C2 landscapes produce a large amount of waste, resulting in water, soil, air and noise pollution. (4) Over exploitation. The large demand for water due to over exploitation of agriculture and animal husbandry, excessive tourism development, and unnecessary construction projects all have negatively affected biodiversity. (5) Invasive species. The Yellow River is at risk of invasive species invasions due to aquaculture, aquatic trade and release activities.

Biodiversity conservation strategies in the Yellow River basin. Various ecological protection projects in the Yellow River basin have already seen success. In an effort to focus on biodiversity conservation, we propose the following six additional strategies: (1) Realizing “conservation covering all landscapes” through spatial planning. (2) Improvement of the protected areas system. (3) Systematically improving production and ecological efficiency in agriculture. (4) Building ecological cities. (5) Improving biodiversity conservation in ecological engineering projects. (6) Strengthening the overall protection of the river ecosystem in this region.

Key words: biodiversity, protected area, spatial planning, urban area, rural area, wild area