生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 1469-1482.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020227

• 黄河流域生物多样性保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域湿地水鸟多样性保护对策

孙工棋1,2, 张明祥1,2, 雷光春1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院, 北京 100083
    2. 黄河流域生态保护国家林草局重点实验室, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-04 接受日期:2020-11-03 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2021-01-12
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春
  • 作者简介:: E-mail: guangchun.lei@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原科学考察研究(2019QZKK0304)

Wetland water bird biodiversity conservation strategies in the Yellow River basin

Gongqi Sun1,2, Mingxiang Zhang1,2, Guangchun Lei1,2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. Key Laboratory of Ecological Protection in the Yellow River Basin of National Forestry and Grassland Adiministration, Beiijing 100083
  • Received:2020-06-04 Accepted:2020-11-03 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2021-01-12
  • Contact: Guangchun Lei

摘要:

黄河是中华文明的发源地, 被誉为母亲河, 是两岸社会经济发展的保障, 切实保护好黄河流域湿地生态系统, 事关中华民族伟大复兴的千秋大计。黄河流域湿地总面积为391万ha, 其中80.4%分布在上游, 中游和下游分别仅12.5%和7.1%。黄河流域是东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁徙路线和中亚候鸟迁徙路线上水鸟的关键栖息地, 一些迁徙水鸟最关键的栖息地均分布在黄河流域, 如黑颈鹤(Grus nigricollis)、白鹤(G. leucogeranus)、丹顶鹤(G. japonensis)、斑头雁(Anser indicus)、大鸨(Otis tarda)、东方白鹳(Ciconia boyciana)、大天鹅(Cygnus cygnus)、疣鼻天鹅(C. olor)、青头潜鸭(Aythya baeri)等。尽管黄河流域湿地提供的水资源仅占全国的2%, 但维持着全国12%的人口饮水安全和15%的耕地用水, 湿地生态系统的脆弱性较高。截至2017年底, 黄河流域已建立各类湿地自然保护地230处, 其中国家公园2处、国家级自然保护区9处、地方级自然保护区68处、国家湿地公园145处、省级湿地公园6处, 湿地保护率达到65%, 高于我国湿地保护53%的平均水平。然而, 流域尺度现有水鸟生物多样性保护仍然面临不少挑战, 包括全球气候变化、水资源过度利用、水环境污染、栖息地丧失等。为此, 我们提出了建立以国家公园为主体的湿地保护地体系、开展濒危候鸟栖息地修复和强化黄河流域综合管理的体制机制建设等建议。

关键词: 黄河流域, 湿地, 水鸟, 生物多样性, 保护对策, 水资源管理

Abstract

The Yellow River plays an important Part Chinese History, and is considered the mother river for China. The river basin is rich in wetland resources, which helps social and economic development. Therefore, effective conservation of this wetland ecosystem is important for China’s future prosperity. According to the 2nd National Wetland Inventory, there are 3.91 million hectares (ha) of wetlands in the river basin. Most wetlands are distributed in the upstream part of the river (80.4%). Whereas, the middle reaches and lower reaches of the river account for 12.5% and 7.1% of wetlands, respectively. Wetlands are key habitats for migratory water birds in the East Asia-Australasia flyway, and the Central Asia Flyway. Some species are critically endangered depending on the Yellow River wetlands, such as Grus nigricollis, G. leucogeranus, G. japonensis, Anser indicus, Otis tarda, Ciconia boyciana, Cygnus cygnus, C. olor, Aythya baeri. Although the river basin retains only 2% of the country’s water resources, it provides drinking water for 12% of the country’s population and irrigation for 15% of the country’s arable land. Unfortunately, the wetland ecosystem is relatively fragile and in need of conservation. To protect the Yellow River wetland ecosystem, 230 wetland protected areas have been established. These protected areas include 2 national parks, 9 national nature reserves, 68 local nature reserves, 145 national wetland parks, and 6 provincial wetland parks. The rate of wetlands being protected exceeds 65%, which is above than national average 53%. However, current conservation efforts are still unable to mitigate key challenges such as climate change, over exploitation of water resources, pollution, and the degradation of habitats for water birds. A list of comprehensive wetland biodiversity conservation strategies has been proposed which include: establishing a river basin protected area system, conserving and restorating key habitats for endangered water birds, and strengthening an integrating the river basin management with effective mechanisms.

Key words: Yellow River, wetlands, water bids, biodiversity, conservation strategies, water management