生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 661-675.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.15121

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

海洋微型底栖生物的多样性与地理分布

徐奎栋*()   

  1. 中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室, 山东青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-22 接受日期:2011-10-20 出版日期:2011-11-20 发布日期:2011-12-19
  • 通讯作者: 徐奎栋
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: kxu@qdio.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-EW-Z-5);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973 2011CB403604);青岛市公共领域科技支撑计划项目(10-3-3-38-jh)

Biodiversity and biogeography of marine microbenthos: progress and prospect

Kuidong Xu*()   

  1. Department of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071
  • Received:2011-07-22 Accepted:2011-10-20 Online:2011-11-20 Published:2011-12-19
  • Contact: Kuidong Xu

摘要:

海洋微型底栖生物是指生活于海洋沉积物中及表面的所有单细胞原核和真核微型生物, 包括原核微生物、真核微藻及原生动物等光合自养和异养的类群。与水体相比, 海洋底栖生境孕育了形态和功能多样性更高的微型生物, 在陆架浅海单位体积沉积物中其丰度较之水体中同类生物高一至几个数量级, 而深海则孕育着特殊进化环境下新奇多样且数量庞大的微型底栖生物, 是维持海洋生物多样性、海洋生态系统结构和功能不可或缺的部分。迄今对于微型生物是全球性还是限定性分布一直存在争议, 对其解答受到分类研究欠缺及采样不足的制约。分子生物学从正反两方面提供了理论依据, 但无法得出一个普遍接受的观点。海洋微型底栖生物的多样性研究侧重于物种多样性及群落结构与分子多样性, 较为显著的进展体现在原核微生物的分子多样性及底栖真核微藻的物种多样性研究, 对于海洋底栖原生动物的多样性研究则相较滞后。本文综述了国内外对海洋微型底栖生物各主要类群的分类学和多样性研究进展, 探讨了各类群在全球的潜在物种多样性, 并就我国未来加强海洋微型底栖生物多样性构成、分布与变动及驱动变化的因子以及底栖微食物网的研究提出了建议。

关键词: 微型生物, 海洋沉积物, 生物多样性, 生物地理学, 研究进展

Abstract

The marine microbenthos is composed of prokaryotic bacteria and archaea, and eukaryotic microalgae and protozoa that live in or on bottom sediments. Compared to those in pelagic systems, marine benthic habitats, particularly those in deep-sea, are highly heterogeneous and harbor diverse microbenthic communities whose abundance and productivity exceed those of the water column by one to several orders of magnitude in some cases. The marine microbenthos constitutes an essential component of marine biodiversity and ecosystems, particularly in marine biogeochemical cycles. Our understanding of microbial diversity and distribution within the benthos is greatly hampered by the lack of taxonomical data and undersampling. Estimation based on theories and statistics have yielded varied pictures of microbial diversity. Molecular evidence has also provided new insights into the microbial world. The present paper summarizes literature dealing with the biodiversity and geographical distribution of marine microbenthos, from bacteria to eukaryotic algae and protozoa. Striking progress has been made towards understanding the community structure, diversity and molecular phylogeny of benthic bacteria, while most benthic protozoa, with the exception of marine interstitial ciliates, are still an understudied group, largely due to taxonomic impediments and methodological limitations. Thus far, most research focuses on molecular and species diversity within marine microbenthos, while little research concerns habitat diversity. Our review highlights the need for more comprehensive investigation of the diversity, distribution and ecological role of the marine microbenthos.

Key words: microorganisms, marine sediment, biodiversity, biogeography, progress