生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (1): 97-105.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.09101

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

珍稀濒危植物的回归: 理论和实践

周翔, 高江云()   

  1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-05 接受日期:2010-10-29 出版日期:2011-01-20 发布日期:2011-04-01
  • 通讯作者: 高江云
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: gjy@xtbg.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院“优秀博士学位论文、院长奖获得者科研启动专项资金”(YOZK051B01)

Reintroduction of rare and endangered plants: theories and practices

Xiang Zhou, Jiangyun Gao()   

  1. Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
  • Received:2010-05-05 Accepted:2010-10-29 Online:2011-01-20 Published:2011-04-01
  • Contact: Jiangyun Gao

摘要:

回归(reintroduction)指的是在一个物种出现濒危的现有分布区域或已经灭绝的历史分布区域内建立新种群的活动。作为物种保护及种群恢复的重要策略之一, 回归在越来越多的珍稀濒危植物保护实践中得到了应用。回归的成功标准分为短期和长期两类, 前者包括个体的成活、种群的建立和扩散;后者包括回归种群的自我维持和在生态系统中发挥功能等。珍稀濒危植物的回归是一项高风险和高花费的工程, 需要根据种群遗传学和生态学理论, 选择合适的繁殖体、扩繁方式、回归地点和生境、定植时间、定植方式等, 还要考虑传粉者和共生物种, 并开展回归后的长期监测。为保证回归的成功并把回归过程中可能对生态环境造成的不利影响降到最小, 还需要防止遗传污染、避免源种群的过度采集、加强公众教育、加强长期监测等。不同植物的回归面临着各不相同的具体困难, 兰科植物的回归面临更多的困难, 如材料扩繁难与存活率低等。基于生态学、传粉生物学、繁殖技术、真菌学和种群遗传多样性研究基础上开展兰科植物的回归, 被证明是有效的综合保护策略。

关键词: 珍稀濒危植物, 回归, 兰科, 保护策略

Abstract

Reintroduction is defined as an attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct. As an important strategy for species conservation and population restoration, reintroduction is increasingly applied to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. However, reintroduction is often a relatively high-risk and high-cost activity, and needs to be conducted under the direction of sound theories and reasonable techniques. Plant reintroductions often face specific challenges. Orchid reintroductions, particularly, are often confronted with more specific difficulties. Reintroduction, when combined with research efforts into ecology, pollination biology, propagation science, mycology, and population genetic diversity is termed integrated conservation, and has been demonstrated as an effective orchid conservation strategy. Based on scientific literature, this paper provides an overview of the reintroduction of rare and endangered plants in terms of definitions, criteria for success, theories and methods, and also summarizes the possible risks and problems of plant reintroduction.

Key words: rare and endangered plants, reintroduction, Orchidaceae, conservation strategy, overview