生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (6): 613-624.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09161

所属专题: 群落中的物种多样性:格局与机制

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

物种多样性地理格局的能量假说

王志恒*(), 唐志尧, 方精云   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2009-06-22 接受日期:2009-11-30 出版日期:2009-11-20 发布日期:2009-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 王志恒
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: zhiheng.wang@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(40638039);国家自然科学基金(90711002)

The species-energy hypothesis as a mechanism for species richness patterns

Zhiheng Wang*(), Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang   

  1. Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Center for Ecological Research & Education, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2009-06-22 Accepted:2009-11-30 Online:2009-11-20 Published:2009-11-20
  • Contact: Zhiheng Wang

摘要:

物种多样性地理分布格局及其成因是生物地理学和宏观生态学研究的核心问题之一。为了解释物种多样性的分布格局, 人们提出了多种假说, 其中讨论最多的是能量假说。该假说认为, 物种多样性的变化受能量控制。根据能量的不同形式及其对物种多样性的影响机制, 能量假说包括以下几种形式: 生产力假说(productivity hypothesis)、水分—能量动态假说(water-energy dynamic hypothesis)、环境能量假说(ambient energy hypothesis)、寒冷忍耐假说(freezing tolerance hypothesis)以及生态学代谢假说(metabolic theory of ecology, MTE)。本文系统介绍了每种能量假说的含义、所使用的能量形式及表征变量, 以及对物种多样性的影响机制, 并对不同形式的能量假说进行了比较, 在此基础上, 分析了每种能量假说的优点和缺点以及各自面临的问题。

关键词: 物种多样性, 动能, 化学能, 温度, 生产力假说, 水分—能量动态假说, 环境能量假说, 寒冷忍耐假说, 生态学代谢假说

Abstract

Large-scale patterns of species diversity are one of the most important and attractive issues for ecology and biogeography. Many hypotheses have been proposed to understand the mechanisms that shape and maintain the diversity patterns. Among them, the energy hypothesis, which focuses on the influence of energy on species diversity, has generated the most attention. Based on the forms of energy and the mechanisms of energy effects on diversity patterns, five versions of the energy hypothesis have been recognized, i.e. productivity hypothesis, water-energy dynamic hypothesis, ambient energy hypothesis, freezing tolerance hypothesis, and metabolic theory of ecology. The current paper reviews the development of the energy hypothesis, and then presents the context, energy forms, variables, predictions, and underlying mechanisms for the five versions of the energy hypothesis. Furthermore, we discuss the advantages, shortcomings, and challenges of each version of the energy hypothesis.

Key words: species diversity, kinetic energy, thermal energy, productivity hypothesis, water-energy dynamic hypothesis, ambient energy hypothesis, freezing tolerance hypothesis, metabolic theory of ecology