生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (1): 76-81.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08140

• 研究简报 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江河口湿地鱼类的种类组成及多样性分析

张衡1,4, 朱国平2,3, 陆健健4,*()   

  1. 1 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所渔业资源遥感信息技术重点开放实验室, 上海 200090
    2 大洋生物资源开发和利用上海高校重点实验室, 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306
    3 上海海洋大学大洋渔业资源可持续开发省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306
    4 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2008-06-17 接受日期:2008-10-17 出版日期:2009-01-20 发布日期:2009-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 陆健健
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: jjlu@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    上海市科委重大科技攻关项目(06DZ12301);国家科技支撑计划(2006BAD09A05);大洋生物资源开发和利用上海市高校重点实验室开放基金(KF200802)

Fish species composition and diversity of Yangtze River estuarine wetlands

Heng Zhang1,4, Guoping Zhu2,3, Jianjian Lu4,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Fisheries Resources Remote Sensing and Information Technology Resources, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090
    2 Key Laboratory of Shanghai Education Commission for Oceanic Fisheries Resources Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
    3 Key Laboratory of Sustainable Exploitation of Oceanic Fisheries Resources (Shanghai Ocean University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306
    4 State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:2008-06-17 Accepted:2008-10-17 Online:2009-01-20 Published:2009-01-20
  • Contact: Jianjian Lu

摘要:

为了解长江河口湿地鱼类种类组成的现状及变化趋势, 作者于2004-2007年间在长江河口湿地设置了33个采样站点, 采用多种调查网具对该水域的鱼类资源状况进行了较为系统的调查。共调查到鱼类123种, 隶属1纲18目46科。结合文献记录, 本地区共有鱼类208种, 隶属2纲22目67科。海鲢(Elops saurus)和印度小公鱼(Sardinella sindensis)为本地区的新记录种。鱼类组成以鲤形目和鲈形目为主; 生态型以淡水鱼类最多。长江南支、北支和口门区水域的种类组成存在一定的差异, 南支常见种以鲤形目鱼类为主, 而北支和口门区以鲈形目鱼类为主。与1990年以前的调查资料相比, 长江河口湿地鱼类物种数有所减少, 其中软骨鱼类和鲀科鱼类下降相对较多。一些重要经济种逐渐变为偶见种, 甚至成为濒危物种, 如鲥(Tenualosa reevesii)、前颌间银鱼(Hemisalanx prognathus)和暗纹东方鲀(Takifugu obscurus)等。导致河口湿地鱼类物种多样性下降的主要原因可能是过度捕捞、水域污染和栖息地丧失等。

关键词: 长江河口湿地, 物种多样性, 生态型, 出现频率

Abstract

To explore the status and dynamics of fish species composition, we surveyed fish at 33 sampling stations using several net types in wetlands of the Yangtze River estuary between 2004 and 2007. A total of 123 fish species were collected, belonging to 46 families, 18 orders and 1 class. A historical dataset showed 208 fish species in 67 families, 22 orders and 2 classes. Elops saurus and Sardinella sindensis were two newly-recorded species in the area. The fish fauna was mainly comprised of Cypriniformes and Perciformes, and freshwater ecological guilds. Species composition varied among the southern branch, northern branch and the estuarine mouth. The dominant species in the southern branch belonged to Cypriniformes, while those in the northern branch and the estuarine mouth both belonged to Perciformes. Compared to the pre-1990 survey, we found that diversity of fish species in the study area deceased to some extent, especially species in Cartilaginous or Tetraodontidae families. Some important commercial fishes, such as Tenualosa reevesii, Hemisalanx prognathus, and Takifugu obscurus, had become uncommon or rare species. Reasons for such decrease may lay on overfishing, water pollution and habitat loss, etc.

Key words: Yangtze River estuarine wetlands, species diversity, species composition, occurrence