生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (5): 426-436.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08159

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国转基因水稻商品化应用的潜在环境生物安全问题

卢宝荣1,*(), 傅强2, 沈志成3   

  1. 1 复旦大学生命科学学院生态与进化生物学系, 教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室, 上海 200433
    2 中国水稻研究所, 农业部转基因植物环境安全监督检验测试中心(杭州), 杭州 310006
    3 浙江大学昆虫科学研究所,水稻生物学国家重点实验室, 杭州 310029
  • 收稿日期:2008-07-15 接受日期:2008-08-25 出版日期:2008-09-20 发布日期:2008-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 卢宝荣
  • 作者简介:*(brlu@fudan.edu.cn)
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)项目(2007CB109202);国家自然科学基金重点项目(2007ZD001)

Commercialization of transgenic rice in China: potential environmental biosafety issues

Lu Bao-Rong1,*(), Fu Qiang2, Shen Zhicheng3   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
    2 Ministry of Agriculture Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection Center for Genetically Modified Plants in Hangzhou, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006
    3 Institute of Insect Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029
  • Received:2008-07-15 Accepted:2008-08-25 Online:2008-09-20 Published:2008-09-20
  • Contact: Lu Bao-Rong

摘要:

转基因水稻的研发和商品化应用将为提高我国水稻的生产力提供新的机遇, 并缓解我国的粮食安全问题。转基因水稻的大规模环境释放和商品化生产可能会带来一定的环境生物安全问题, 处理不好会影响转基因水稻的进一步研究和发展。通常所指的环境生物安全问题主要包括以下几个方面: (1)抗生物胁迫转基因对非靶标生物的影响及效应; (2)外源基因向非转基因作物和野生近缘种逃逸及其可能带来的生态后果; (3)转基因作物对农业生态系统、土壤微生物以及生物多样性的潜在影响; (4)抗生物胁迫转基因的长期使用导致靶标生物对转基因产生抗性等。为了安全有效和持续利用转基因生物技术及其产品, 有必要对转基因水稻的环境生物安全性进行科学评价。基于风险评价的原则, 本文对转基因水稻在我国商品化生产和大规模种植可能带来的环境生物安全问题进行了理性分析, 希望为我国转基因水稻商品化应用的决策和生物安全评价提供科学依据。

关键词: 转基因水稻, 生态风险, 非靶标生物, 基因漂移, 生物多样性, 土壤微生物, 抗性进化

Abstract

The development and commercialization of transgenic rice with novel traits in China may offer more opportunities for promoting rice productivity. Owing to the significance of rice as a major food crop in China, the enhancement of rice production is important for national food security. If left unaddressed, the potential biosafety concerns over the extensive release and commercial cultivation of transgenic rice may hamper the development and application of this technology in rice improvement. Biosafety issues include: (1) effects of toxic transgenes on non-target organisms; (2) transgene escape to crops or wild relatives through gene flow and its potential ecological consequences; (3) interactions and influences of transgenes and transgenic plants on biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and soil microbes; and (4) the development of resistance to insect- or disease-resistant transgenes in target organisms. In order to safely and sustainably utilize transgenic biotechnology in rice, it is very important to assess biosafety consequences, including environmental risks, from transgenic rice. This paper presents a rational analysis of potential environmental biosafety problems based on the principles of risk assessment, provided that transgenic rice will be released for commercialization. We hope these analyses will provide useful information for the decision-making on commercialization of transgenic rice and serve as a framework for the assessment of relevant environmental biosafety risks.

Key words: transgenic rice, ecological risk, non-target organism, gene flow, biodiversity, soil microbe, resistance evolution