生物多样性 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 23037.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023037

所属专题: 传粉生物学

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

放牧对蜜蜂的影响及其生态修复建议

赵秋杰1,2, 郭辉军1,3, 孟广涛4, 钟明川4, 尹俊5, 刘倬橙2, 李品荣4, 陈力2, 陶毅1,2, 秋生6, 王红2,*(), 赵延会2,*()   

  1. 1.西南林业大学地理与生态旅游学院, 昆明 650233
    2.中国科学院昆明植物研究所东亚生物多样性和生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
    3.云南省高原湿地保护修复与生态服务重点实验室, 昆明 650233
    4.云南省林业和草原科学院, 昆明 650201
    5.云南省草原监督管理站, 昆明 650051
    6.迪庆藏族自治州林业和草原局, 云南香格里拉 674402
  • 收稿日期:2023-02-09 接受日期:2023-04-18 出版日期:2023-05-20 发布日期:2023-04-25
  • 通讯作者: * E-mail: zhaoyanhui@mail.kib.ac.cn;wanghong@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB31000000);云南省基础研究专项重大项目(202101BC070003);云南省基础研究计划面上项目(202201AT070633);中央财政林业草原生态保护恢复专项和云岭学者项目和兴滇英才项目

Effects of grazing on bees and suggestions for its ecological restoration

Qiujie Zhao1,2, Huijun Guo1,3, Guangtao Meng4, Mingchuan Zhong4, Jun Yin5, Zhuocheng Liu2, Pinrong Li4, Li Chen2, Yi Tao1,2, Sheng Qiu6, Hong Wang2,*(), Yanhui Zhao2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650233
    2. Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    3. Yunnan Academy of Forestry and Grassland, Kunming 650201
    4. Yunnan Grassland Monitoring and Management Station, Kunming 650051
    5. Yunnan Key Laboratory of Plateau Wetland Conservation, Restoration and Ecological Services, Kunming 650233
    6. Forestry and Grassland Bureau of Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Shangri-La, Yunnan 674402
  • Received:2023-02-09 Accepted:2023-04-18 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-04-25
  • Contact: * E-mail: zhaoyanhui@mail.kib.ac.cn;wanghong@mail.kib.ac.cn

摘要:

过度放牧对全球大多数草地群落造成严重威胁。蜜蜂是草地群落中的关键传粉类群, 放牧可能引起群落中植物多样性和巢穴资源变动, 从而对蜜蜂多样性产生不利影响。然而, 在放牧历史较长和放牧管理良好的群落, 放牧对蜜蜂多样性也可能存在正面或中性的影响。因此, 放牧如何影响蜜蜂多样性及其在生态修复中的作用还需要深入研究。本研究整合已有文献资料以及近年来的研究实践, 提出通过整合蜜蜂物种丰富度、功能多样性、系统发育多样性, 以及传粉网络特征等与生态系统功能密切相关因素的研究, 能够更加准确地认识蜜蜂多样性在生态修复过程中的动态变化以及存在的问题。对于草地退化程度较低的地区, 建议通过有效的放牧管理, 利用草地群落自身的复原力实现蜜蜂的逐步修复。而对于草地退化严重的地区, 则需要在实行放牧管理的基础上, 通过人为干预的辅助再生策略加速生态修复进程, 如补播草种增加花多度和提供适宜蜜蜂的筑巢环境等。补播草种的筛选和组合要综合考虑其在传粉网络中的角色, 以及花特征和花期物候等因素, 确保蜜蜂在不同花期均能获得足够的食物。针对我国南北方不同草地类型开展蜜蜂丧失机制的调查, 并有针对性地制定蜜蜂的生态修复策略, 具有重要意义。

关键词: 草地, 过度放牧, 野生蜂类, 传粉网络, 生态修复

Abstract

Background & Aims: Overgrazing poses a dominant threat to the biodiversity of most grassland communities. Bees are the primary pollinator group in the grassland ecosystem. Grazing has generally negative effects on bee diversity by affecting floral and nesting resources in grassland communities. However, in communities with long grazing history and reasonable grazing management, grazing may have a positive or neutral impact on bee diversity. Therefore, how grazing affects bee diversity and its role in ecological restoration needs further study.
Progress:
In this study, we integrate the recent literature and research practice, and propose that the efficacy of bee restoration can be more accurately assessed through the integration of bee species richness, functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity and full plant-pollinator interaction networks, which provide comprehensive and quantitative information on the structure and function of grassland communities. For grasslands with low degradation, bees can be gradually recovered by effective grazing management, which uses the natural recovery potential of the communities. For grasslands with greater degradation, it is necessary to accelerate the bee restoration through active interventions on the basis of grazing management, such as sowing wildflower species that cannot migrate into the restoration area without assistance and enhancing the availability of nesting habitat for bees. To ensure that bees can obtain enough floral rewards in different flowering periods, the selection and combination of the sown flower species should take into account their roles in the pollination network, floral traits and flowering phenology.
Perspective: It is of great practical significance to investigate the mechanism of bee loss in different types of grasslands in southern and northern China, and to guide the development of targeted ecological restoration strategies for bees.

Key words: grassland, overgrazing, wild bees, pollination network, ecological restoration