生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1295-1307.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021263

• 生态系统原真性和完整性专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

国家公园陆地自然生态系统完整性与原真性评价方法探索: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点为例

彭杨靖1,2, 黄治昊1, 林乐乐1,2, 王锐锋1, 崔国发1,*()   

  1. 1.北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院, 北京 100083
    2.中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-03 接受日期:2021-10-24 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 崔国发
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: fa6716@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(32171545)

Exploring evaluation methods for integrity and authenticity of terrestrial natural ecosystems in national parks: The case of Qianjiangyuan National Park system pilot

Yangjing Peng1,2, Zhihao Huang1, Lele Lin1,2, Ruifeng Wang1, Guofa Cui1,*()   

  1. 1 School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2 Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2021-07-03 Accepted:2021-10-24 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Guofa Cui

摘要:

中国建立国家公园的目的是保护自然生态系统的完整性和原真性, 促进生物多样性保护。国家公园的完整性和原真性评价是国家公园的布局规划、边界范围确定以及功能区划等研究的前提条件。为了评估国家公园自然生态系统完整性和原真性状态, 本文基于陆地自然生态系统的结构和功能, 通过指标筛选、专家咨询、指标量化和建立综合评价模型, 构建了陆地自然生态系统完整性与原真性的评价指标体系及其量化评价方法。该评价方法包括5个自然生态系统完整性指标、5个自然生态系统原真性指标和2个综合评价指标。以浙江省钱江源国家公园体制试点为例, 本文初步评估了其生态系统完整性与原真性状态, 并对评价结果进行了分级。按照本研究的评价方法, 钱江源国家公园体制试点的自然生态系统完整性评价结果为52.83%, 评价等级为较差; 自然生态系统原真性评价结果为87.06%, 评价等级为好。钱江源国家公园体制试点有待关注和提升的指标有保护区域完整性指数(27.00%)和旗舰种适宜生境完整性指数(53.04%)。最后, 本文结合研究区域评价结果对生态系统完整性和原真性领域应关注的问题进行了讨论。该自然生态系统完整性和原真性评价方法可提供一种评价指标覆盖较全面、数据易获取, 且评价结果易被决策者和管理者理解的评价思路。

关键词: 国家公园, 陆地自然生态系统, 完整性, 原真性, 评价方法

Abstract

Aims: The purpose of establishing national parks in China is to protect the integrity and authenticity of natural ecosystems and to promote biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of the integrity and authenticity of national parks is a prerequisite for studies such as layout planning, boundary range determination, and functional zoning of national parks. To assess the integrity and authenticity status of natural ecosystems in national parks, this study provided a method in which data are easily accessible, assessment methods are simpler, and assessment results are clearly understood by decision-makers, managers, and the public.
Methods: Based on the structure and function of terrestrial natural ecosystems, this study constructed an evaluation index system of terrestrial natural ecosystem integrity and authenticity and its quantitative evaluation method through index screening, expert consultation, index quantification, and the establishment of a comprehensive evaluation model. The evaluation method contained five indicators of natural ecosystem integrity, five indicators of natural ecosystem authenticity, and two comprehensive evaluation indicators. Taking Qianjiangyuan National Park system pilot in Zhejiang Province as an example, this study initially assessed its ecosystem integrity and authenticity status, and graded the assessment results.
Results: According to the assessment method of this study, the evaluation result of natural ecosystem integrity of Qianjiangyuan National Park system pilot was 52.83%, with a less good evaluation grade; while the evaluation result of natural ecosystem authenticity was 87.06%, with a good evaluation grade. The indicators that deserve attention and improvement in Qianjiangyuan National Park system pilot include the integrity index of the conservation area (27.00%) and the integrity index of the flagship species suitable habitat (53.04%).
Conclusion: This study constructed an evaluation method for the integrity and authenticity of terrestrial natural ecosystems in national parks with comprehensive evaluation index coverage, easy data acquisition, and easy evaluation results to be understood by decision makers and managers.

Key words: national park, terrestrial natural ecosystems, integrity, authenticity, evaluation method