生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1411-1424.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021135

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

乡村景观生物多样性研究进展

陈思淇, 张玉钧()   

  1. 北京林业大学园林学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-12 接受日期:2021-06-28 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 张玉钧
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: yjzhang622@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2019YFD1100403)

Research progress on biodiversity in the rural landscape

Siqi Chen, Yujun Zhang()   

  1. School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2021-04-12 Accepted:2021-06-28 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Yujun Zhang

摘要:

乡村景观是一种人文和自然共生的复合生态系统, 为生物多样性的维持提供了支持。目前, 中国传统乡村地区生物多样性的维持正面临着农业集约化、人工林树种单一化、非农业用地急剧扩张及生态传承机制解体等复杂多样的威胁, 亟待展开深入研究。本文在总结乡村景观生物多样性相关概念及特征的基础上, 通过文献分析概括了国际乡村景观生物多样性的热点研究方向, 包括农业集约化下的生物多样性管理、区域尺度乡村景观与生物多样性的协同关系、局地尺度不同乡村景观类型的物种多样性及乡村景观中的生物文化多样性, 进一步梳理了国内在相关研究方向上的主要进展并指出研究不足。在此基础上提出未来研究展望, 包括突出生物文化多样性特征、加强多时空尺度分析、深化动态维持机制研究、推进生物多样性研究在乡村生态景观规划中的全过程应用等建议。

关键词: 生物多样性, 乡村景观, 半自然生境, 生物文化多样性, 人为干扰, 时空尺度

Abstract

Background & Aims: Rural landscapes provide support for a high degree of biodiversity due to the symbiotic relationship between humanity and nature in these complex ecosystems. Currently, the maintenance of biodiversity in traditional Chinese rural areas is facing complex and diverse threats, and there is an urgent need for relevant, in-depth research. Here, we conduct an in-depth review on domestic and foreign research progress of biodiversity in rural areas. We provide a theoretical framework with methodological references on best practices for the protection and maintenance of biodiversity in rural areas and support for subsequent ecological landscape planning.
Progress: In an effort to straighten biodiversity characteristics in rural landscapes, we summarizes the four current research directions for international biodiversity in rural landscape through a literature analysis: biodiversity management under agricultural intensification, the synergistic relationship between rural landscape and biodiversity at a regional scale, the species diversity of different types of rural landscapes at the local scale, and research on the biocultural aspects of rural landscapes. Research focused on biodiversity management under agricultural intensification mostly uses various farmland biodiversity indicators as dependent variables, and environmental variables such as agricultural habitat diversity, cover diversity, and land use intensity as independent variables. Among them, land use intensity is mostly replaced by semi-natural habitat ratio indicators. Current in this area is mostly focused on agricultural ecosystems, and rarely involves dynamic analyses at spatial and temporal scales. Research focused on the synergistic relationship between rural landscape and biodiversity at the regional scale is mainly focused on the impact of land cover and land use changes on biodiversity and ecosystem services, the change of vegetation diversity along the urban-rural gradient, and the optimization of urban and rural spatial patterns combined with species distribution models. Research on the species diversity of different types of rural landscapes at the local scale is mainly focused on the analysis of the maintenance mechanism for species diversity in different landscape elements (farms, gardens, settlements, woodlands, waters) at the local scale or different patch types on a plot scale. Research focused on the biocultural aspects of rural landscapes is mainly focused on changes in biocultural diversity and ecosystem cultural services at a regional scale, the impact of traditional ecological wisdom on species diversity at a landscape scale, the species composition of various rural “cultural landscapes” and “cultural forests” at the local scale, and the analysis of cultural keystone species with the background of ethnobotany. This paper further summarizes the main progress in related research directions for China.
Prospects: We recommend the following as future research directions for studying the biodiversity of rural landscapes in China: highlighting the characteristics of biocultural diversity in rural landscapes, strengthening analysis of multiple temporal and spatial scales, deepening research on the dynamic maintenance mechanism of biodiversity in rural areas, and promoting the application of biodiversity in the full-process of landscape planning.

Key words: biodiversity, rural landscape, semi-natural habitat, biocultural diversity, anthropogenic disturbance, spatial- temporal scale