生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1369-1376.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021094

• 研究报告:微生物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国寒温带至亚热带森林多孔菌区系和多样性比较

武英达1,2, 茆卫琳1, 员瑗1,*()   

  1. 1.北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院微生物研究所, 北京 100083
    2.中国消防救援学院, 北京 102202
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-12 接受日期:2021-05-21 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 员瑗
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: yuanyuan1018@bjfu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(32000010)

Comparison of polypore florae and diversity from temperate to subtropical forest zones in China

Yingda Wu1,2, Weilin Mao1, Yuan Yuan1,*()   

  1. 1 Institute of Microbiology, School of Ecology and Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2 China Fire and Rescue Institute, Beijing 102202
  • Received:2021-03-12 Accepted:2021-05-21 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Yuan Yuan

摘要:

多孔菌是木材腐朽菌的重要类群, 具有重要的生态功能和经济价值。本文比较分析了我国寒温带至亚热带的阿尔泰山脉、秦岭山脉和南岭山脉的多孔菌物种、生态习性和区系特征。经调查, 在三个山脉共发现多孔菌8目29科107属287种, 其中阿尔泰山、秦岭和南岭分别为84种、132种、160种, 优势科均为多孔菌科和锈革孔菌科。三个山脉的共有属和共有种分别为25个和14个。区系地理分析发现, 阿尔泰山脉和秦岭山脉以世界广布成分和北温带成分为主, 南岭山脉以世界广布和泛热带成分为主。在寄主选择性方面, 阿尔泰山脉的多孔菌偏好生长在裸子植物上, 其比例高于被子植物, 而秦岭和南岭则相反。在腐朽类型方面, 从寒温带至亚热带白腐真菌物种数量呈现逐渐上升的趋势, 而褐腐真菌数量逐渐下降。通过比较分析3个不同气候带的多孔菌物种多样性、寄主偏好性和引起的腐朽类型, 发现气候和植被类型是影响多孔菌区系组成的主要因素。

关键词: 多孔菌, 物种多样性, 区系, 分布特征

Abstract

Background: Polypores are an important group of wood-decaying fungi and have important ecological functions and economic values. The unique geographical structure and complex vegetation types in China provide abundant substrates for the growth of polypores. Although the taxonomy of polypores has been well studied in China, few comparative studies on the diversity and flora of polypores among different climatic zones has been performed. This study is intended to compare the florae and populations of polypores in multiple forest zones with different climates and vegetations, and will provide the basis for the protection of species diversity and the development of application potential of polypores.
Methods: In this study, we comparatively analyzed the polypore species, ecological habits and floral characteristics in the Altai Mountains, the Qinling Mountains and the Nanling Mountains which are respectively located in boreal, temperate and subtropical zones in China.
Results: A total of 287 poroid wood-decaying fungal species belonging to 107 genera, 29 families, and 8 orders were obtained from the three mountain ranges. Of these species, 84, 132 and 160 were found in the Altai Mountains, the Qinling Mountains and the Nanling Mountains, respectively, and the community was dominated by families Polyporaceae and Hymenochaetaceae. In the generic and species levels, 25 genera and 14 species were common in the three mountain ranges. Floristic analysis found that polypores in the Altai Mountains and the Qinling Mountains were dominated by the cosmopolitan and the northern temperate elements, while polypores in the Nanling Mountains were dominated by the cosmopolitan and the pantropical taxa. In terms of host preference, polypores in the Altai Mountains preferentially grow on gymnosperms over angiosperms, while the opposite was true in the Qinling Mountains and Nanling Mountains. In the two rotting types caused by polypores, the species number of white rot polypores increased, but that of the brown rot decreased, gradually from boreal to subtropical zones.
Conclusion: Climate and vegetation types are the major influencing factors on the flora composition of polypores, based on the analysis of species diversity, host preference and decaying type of polypores in the three mountains.

Key words: polypores, species diversity, floral composition, distribution character