生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 960-970.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021029

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国在华采集竹类植物标本的历史(1840-2010年)

吴仁武, 南歆格, 晏海, 杨凡, 史琰, 包志毅*()   

  1. 浙江农林大学风景园林与建筑学院, 杭州 311300
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-19 接受日期:2021-03-12 出版日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2021-04-22
  • 通讯作者: * 包志毅 E-mail: bao99928@188.com
  • 基金资助:
    浙江农林大学科研发展基金(2021FR030);杭州市哲学社会科学规划课题(Z21JC079)

On the history of the bamboo specimen collection in China by American plant collectors (1840-2010)

Renwu Wu, Xinge Nan, Hai Yan, Fan Yang, Yan Shi, Zhiyi Bao*()   

  1. College of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300
  • Received:2021-01-19 Accepted:2021-03-12 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-04-22
  • Contact: * Zhiyi Bao E-mail: bao99928@188.com

摘要:

植物标本采集是植物学研究的重要内容, 与植物引种密切相关。自19世纪以来, 美国植物采集者在全球尤其是中国进行了广泛的植物采集。在众多的植物类群中, 中国的竹类植物引起了美国采集者的极大关注, 并开展了大量调查研究和标本采集工作。研究美国植物采集者在中国采集竹类植物标本的历史, 对了解竹类植物从中国引种到美国的历史具有重要意义。本文基于国内外有关美国在华采集的竹类植物标本数据, 对其学名、采集地、采集人以及采集时间进行整理校对, 分析了美国采集者在华采集竹类植物标本的历史。结果表明: 1840-2010年, 美国在华共采集竹类植物标本960号2,238份, 隶属于25属120种(含变种和变型), 分别占中国竹类属和种数的73.5%和22.5%; 有45位(支)采集者(采集队), 在这些采集者中莫古礼最为重要; 采集地涉及20个省级行政区; 采集时间前后跨度约170年, 主要集中在20世纪上半叶。

关键词: 中国, 美国采集者, 竹类植物, 标本, 采集历史, 植物资源

Abstract

Aim: Plant specimen collections are important for botany research and closely related with plant introductions. Studies show that American plant collectors had collected plants extensively worldwide, especially in China since the 19th century. Because of the ornamental value, cultural connotation, economic significance and ecological benefits, bamboo has become important for American plant collectors in China. Thus, it is essential to study the history of bamboo specimen collection in China by American plant collectors to understand the history of bamboo introduction in the United States from China.
Methods: In this study, we collected raw data with bamboo names, collector names, collection locations and dates from herbarium specimens. We corrected the scientific names of bamboo collected in China, reinvestigated the collection locations, collectors, and collection dates with the goal of investigating the history of bamboo specimens collected in China by American plant collectors.
Results: From 1840 to 2010, a total of 2,238 sheets and 960 numbers of bamboo specimens were collected in China, belonging to 25 genera (accounting for 73.5% of the genera in China) and 120 species (22.5% of the species in China, including several varieties and forms). These specimens were collected by 45 collectors and collection teams and were predominantly from 20 provincial administrative regions. Among the collectors, McClure was the most important one for bamboo specimen collection. This research spanned approximately 170 years, with the majority of research taking place in the first half of the 20th century.
Conclusions: This study objectively reviewed the history of bamboo specimens collected by American plant collectors in China and analyzed the relevant genera, species, collectors, collection locations, collection times, historical background, and contributions from expeditions and collections. The collection history of bamboo specimens show that American plant collectors have made remarkable achievements in bamboo collection from China. The investigation and collection of Chinese bamboo by American plant collectors promoted several applications for bamboo in the United States. First, bamboo was found to be an excellent ornamental and economic plant species. Second, there was an increased promotion for the development of bamboo taxonomy research. Third, there was a facilitation for the introduction and spread of Chinese bamboos to the United States. We suggest that the following work needs to be done for future studies: (1) research on the history of other plant expeditions, collections, and introductions from other Western countries’ collectors, such as British, French, and German collectors; (2) research on plant collections and introductions from foreign countries into China.

Key words: China, American plant collectors, bamboo, specimen, collection history, plant resource