生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 283-289.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020258

• 中国国家公园试点专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国家公园体制试点进展、问题及对策建议

李博炎1,2, 朱彦鹏1,2,*(), 刘伟玮1,2, 李爽1,2, 付梦娣1,2, 任月恒1,2, 蔡譞1,2, 李俊生1,2   

  1. 1.中国环境科学研究院生态科学研究所, 北京 100012
    2.国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012;
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-29 接受日期:2021-03-09 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2021-03-23
  • 通讯作者: 朱彦鹏
  • 作者简介:E-mail: zhuyp@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0402)

Pilot areas for national park system in China: Progress, problems and recommendations

Boyan Li1,2, Yanpeng Zhu1,2,*(), Weiwei Liu1,2, Shuang Li1,2, Mengdi Fu1,2, Yueheng Ren1,2, Xuan Cai1,2, Junsheng Li1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Ecology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2. National Environment Protection Library of Regional Ecosystem Structure and Services Evaluation, Beijing 100012;
  • Received:2020-06-29 Accepted:2021-03-09 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2021-03-23
  • Contact: Yanpeng Zhu
  • About author:E-mail: zhuyp@craes.org.cn

摘要:

建立国家公园体制是我国生态文明建设的重要内容, 是实现自然生态保护领域治理体系和治理能力现代化的重要举措。2015年我国启动了国家公园体制试点工作, 旨在为建立国家公园体制改革提供实践经验。为评估5年多来试点改革成效, 基于对10个国家公园体制试点开展的深入调研, 发现: 国家公园体制试点工作稳妥有序推进, 在国家公园顶层制度设计、建立管理体制机制、法规制度建设、生态环境治理、夯实保护管理基础等方面取得实质性进展, 积累了一批可复制、可推广的经验。但还存在一些问题, 如法律、制度、标准相对欠缺, 管理体制改革不到位, 资金保障机制仍不成熟, 生态环境监管制度缺失, 保护与发展矛盾依然明显等。为此, 本文从推进法治体系建设、深化管理体制改革、构建多元化资金保障机制、健全生态环境监管机制、促进国家公园共建共治共享等五个方面提出了对策建议, 以期为2021年正式设立一批国家公园、初步建立国家公园体制提供参考和依据。

关键词: 国家公园, 体制试点, 体制改革, 评估, 对策建议

Abstract

Background: The establishment of national park system (NPS) is an important content of ecological civilization of China, and is an important measure to realize modernization of governance system and governance capacity in the field of natural and ecological protection. Aiming to obtain practical experience for reform of the NPS, central government of China launched pilot construction of the NPS in 2015.
Progress: For assessing efficiency of pilot reforms in the past five years, we carried out in-depth investigation and research in 10 national parks (NPs). The result showed that: pilot reform of the NPS was reliably and orderly promoted and accumulated a batch of replicable and propagable experience, especially on top design of the NPS, establishment of management mechanism, law and regulations construction, ecological environment protection, strengthening foundation of protection management. However, there was also relative lack of laws, regulations and standards. Management system reform of the NPS did not reach the designated position. It was also lack of monitoring system of ecological environment. Financial support was still not mature, contradictions between natural protection and society development were still obvious.
Perspective:This paper provides relational countermeasure and suggestion for law system construction, deepening the reform of management system, improving the ecological environment supervision mechanism, building diversified funds safeguard mechanism, and promoting to build, to manage and to share the NPs. This paper also provides reference and basis to formally build a batch of NPs, and to preliminary establish the NPS in 2021.

Key words: national park, pilot areas, institutional reform, evaluation, recommendations