生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (9): 1132-1140.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020086

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于红外相机技术调查长江正源沱沱河流域鸟兽多样性

王东1,4, 万雅琼2, 汪世钊3, 陈佳萍1,4, 吴彤1,4, 李佳琦2,*(), 连新明1,5,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所高原生物适应与进化重点实验室, 西宁 810008
    2 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    3 青海大学生态环境工程学院, 西宁 810016
    4 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    5 青海省动物生态基因组学重点实验室, 西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-08 接受日期:2020-07-12 出版日期:2020-09-20 发布日期:2020-09-01
  • 通讯作者: 李佳琦,连新明
  • 作者简介:lijiaqihao@163.com
    * E-mail: lianxinming@nwipb.cas.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2110404);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项(2018-02-06-M2019-62);中国科学院“西部之光”青年学者A类项目和青海省重大专项“三江源区代表性动物基因资源保护和利用”

Camera-trapping survey of the diversity of mammals and birds in the Tuotuo River basin of the source region of the Yangtze River

Dong Wang1,4, Yaqiong Wan2, Shizhao Wang3, Jiaping Chen1,4, Tong Wu1,4, Jiaqi Li2,*(), Xinming Lian1,5,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
    3 College of Eco-Environmental Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining 810016
    4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    5 Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Ecological Genomics, Xining 810008
  • Received:2020-03-08 Accepted:2020-07-12 Online:2020-09-20 Published:2020-09-01
  • Contact: Jiaqi Li,Xinming Lian

摘要:

沱沱河是长江正源, 该流域自然生态系统敏感, 生态环境脆弱, 孕育了诸多适应高海拔、寒旱气候的青藏高原特有物种。为了调查该区域的生物多样性, 我们选取沱沱河流域的班德山、达尔宗山和通天河3个样地, 采用 1 km × 1 km网格法在各样地分别选取20个连续网格, 每个网格内设置1个相机位点, 对流域内的鸟兽物种多样性进行监测。2017年9月至2018年12月, 累计4,288个有效相机工作日, 共获得独立有效照片2,353张, 鉴定兽类5目10科15属16种, 鸟类8目15科19属22种。其中, 国家I级重点保护野生动物有雪豹(Panthera uncia)、白唇鹿(Cervus albirostris)、藏野驴(Equus kiang)和胡兀鹫(Gypaetus barbatus)等4种, 国家II级重点保护野生动物11种, “三有”动物(国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物) 11种。被IUCN濒危物种红色名录评估为濒危(EN)的野生动物1种, 易危(VU)的2种, 近危(NT)的5种。相对多度指数(RAI)排前5位的兽类依次是岩羊(Pseudois nayaur, RAI = 11.17)、高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae, RAI = 6.48)、高原兔(Lepus oiostolus, RAI = 4.99)、藏狐(Vulpes ferrilata, RAI = 3.36)和藏原羚(Procapra picticaudata, RAI = 2.87); 鸟类RAI排前5位的物种为红嘴山鸦(Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, RAI = 3.08)、赭红尾鸲(Phoenicurus ochruros, RAI = 1.26)、棕颈雪雀(Pyrgilauda ruficollis, RAI = 1.26)、大鵟(Buteo hemilasius, RAI = 0.82)和白腰雪雀(Pyrgilauda taczanowskii, RAI = 0.61)。此外, 红外相机还监测到较多的家畜和人为活动(RAI = 8.72)。本研究利用红外相机技术客观记录了长江正源沱沱河流域鸟兽资源的本底情况, 可为进一步调查该地区生物多样性以及制定相应的保护措施提供科学数据。

关键词: 沱沱河流域, 生物多样性, 红外相机, 相对多度指数

Abstract

The Tuotuo River is a tributary to the Yangtze River, and ecologically important because it supports diverse habitat including many endemic species of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Tuotuo River basin is especially unique and includes many different and fragile habitats, but bird and mammal diversity remain unclear. From September 2017 to December 2018, 60 infrared cameras were placed evenly in a grid (60 1-km 2 grids) across three sample plots, Bande Mountains, Daerzong Mountains and the mouth of Tongtian River. A total of 4,288 camera-days, and 2,353 independent photos were obtained. Based on these data, we identified a total of 38 species. We identified 16 species of mammals which could be divided into 5 orders, 10 families, 16 genera and 22 species of birds which could be divided into 8 orders, 15 families, 19 genera. Among 38 species, 26 are classified as falling under either first or second class animal protections in China or have important economic or research value. Four species that belong under Class-I National Key Protected Species include the snow leopard (Panthera uncia), white-lipped deer (Gervus albirostris), kiang (Equus kiang) and lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus); 11 species are classified as Class-II National Key Protected Species and 11 species which are beneficial or have important economic value or research value. The saker falcon (Falco cherrug), a IUCN red list threatened and endangered species was detected, and two other vulnerable species and five species as near threatened were identified in images. The five most detected mammals in the Tuotuo River basin were blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, RAI = 11.17), plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, RAI = 6.48), woolly hare (Lepus oiostolus, RAI = 4.99), Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata, RAI = 3.36) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata, RAI = 2.87). The five most abundant avian species were red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, RAI = 3.08), black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros, RAI = 1.26), rufous-necked snowfinch (Pyrgilauda ruficollis, RAI = 1.26), upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius, RAI = 0.82) and white-rumped snowfinch (Pyrgilauda taczanowskii, RAI = 0.61). Meanwhile, livestock and human activities were also commonly recorded by infrared cameras (RAI = 8.72). The results provide an important basis for further investigating the biodiversity of the Tuotuo River basin of the Yangtze River and formulating conservation and management measures in the future.

Key words: Tuotuo River basin, biodiversity, infrared camera, relative abundance index