生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1276-1285.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019378

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哈萨克斯坦的生物多样性保护及中哈合作的对策建议

吴淼1,2,*(), 郝韵1,2, 张小云1, 王丽贤1, 贺晶晶1,2, 段光正3   

  1. 1 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2 中国科学院中亚生态与环境研究中心, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    3 生态环境部对外合作与交流中心(中国-上海合作组织环境保护合作中心), 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-28 接受日期:2020-03-18 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 吴淼
  • 作者简介:E-mail: wm_xj@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院中亚生态与环境研究中心国际合作项目(RCEECA-2018-003);国家重点研发项目(2018YFE0207200);生态环境部国际合作及履约项目(22110106029)

Biodiversity conservation of Kazakhstan and suggestions on cooperation between China and Kazakhstan

Miao Wu1,2,*(), Yun Hao1,2, Xiaoyun Zhang1, Lixian Wang1, Jingjing He1,2, Guangzheng Duan3   

  1. 1 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    2 Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    3 Foreign Environmental Cooperation Center, Ministry of Ecology and Environment (China Center for SCO Environmental Cooperation), Beijing 100035
  • Received:2019-12-28 Accepted:2020-03-18 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Miao Wu

摘要:

哈萨克斯坦位于欧亚大陆腹地, 地处丝绸之路经济带的重要位置。中国与哈萨克斯坦开展生物多样性保护合作, 有助于解决地区生态环境问题和推动“一带一路”倡议的顺利实施。目前国内尚缺乏对哈萨克斯坦生物多样性及其保护状况的了解。本文在文献的基础上通过定量和定性分析方法, 从地理环境特征、生物多样性状况、保护成效和需求等维度对哈萨克斯坦生物多样性及其保护的总体情况进行了分析。分析结果表明, 哈萨克斯坦的生物多样性丰富, 但也存在着较严重的丧失问题; 哈萨克斯坦政府重视生物多样性保护, 积极承担相关国际履约义务; 在保护管理方面实行多级管理体制, 并与社会经济发展需求相结合, 取得了一定成效。

关键词: 哈萨克斯坦, 生物多样性, 保护, 中哈合作, “一带一路”, 对策建议

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is located in the hinterlands of Eurasia and is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Cooperation between China and Kazakhstan that is focused on the conservation of biodiversity will help solve regional ecological and environmental problems and promote the smooth implementation of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative. China still lacks a basic understanding of Kazakhstan’s biodiversity and the conservation status of different organisms. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we used geographic environmental characteristics, biodiversity status, and different levels of conservation effectiveness to understand the degree of biodiversity present in Kazakhstan. We found that Kazakhstan is rich in biodiversity, but is also at serious risk of losing biodiversity. Kazakhstan's government emphasizes the importance in protecting biodiversity and is active in complying with international obligations. The government has been able to combine the social and economic needs of the nation in implementing a multi-level management system that has been achieved certain results.

Key words: Kazakhstan, biodiversity, conservation, China-Kazakhstan cooperation, One Belt One Road, Countermeasure and Suggestion