生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (5): 505-515.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019042

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

模式动物在共生微生物研究中的作用

肖雅倩1,刘传2,肖亮2,*()   

  1. 1 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
    2 深圳华大生命科学研究院宏基因组研究中心, 广东深圳 518000
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-21 接受日期:2019-04-29 出版日期:2019-05-20 发布日期:2019-10-12
  • 通讯作者: 肖亮

The role of model animals in the study of symbiotic microorganisms

Xiao Yaqian1,Liu Chuan2,Xiao Liang2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000
  • Received:2019-02-21 Accepted:2019-04-29 Online:2019-05-20 Published:2019-10-12
  • Contact: Xiao Liang

摘要:

共生微生物是一类定殖于宿主体表或体内, 可执行宿主本身无法完成的功能, 并依赖于宿主所提供的生长环境的微生物。众多研究表明, 人体肠道共生微生物与免疫、营养、代谢, 甚至精神健康等生理功能密切相关, 是重要的“微生物器官”。在早期的肠道微生物研究中, 模式动物就已经作为研究工具被使用。随着肠道微生物研究的不断深入, 模式动物作为不可替代的研究对象发挥了越来越重要的作用。本综述主要对几种重要的模式动物如斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、小鼠(Mus musculus)、猪(Sus scrofa domesticus)和猕猴(Macaca mulatta)在肠道微生物研究中的应用进行了总结, 介绍了各种模式动物的发展过程及特点, 各自在应用于研究时的优缺点, 以及利用这些动物模型在共生微生物领域所取得的一些标志性的科研成果。同时, 也就近年来在共生微生物领域新兴的一些模式生物如蜜蜂(Apis)、果蝇(Drosophila)、秀丽隐杆线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)等进行了一些探讨。旨在让该领域的研究者们了解模式动物与人体在共生微生物方面的异同, 为更好地利用这一研究工具提供参考。

关键词: 共生微生物, 宿主, 模式动物, 肠道微生物

Abstract:

Symbiotic microorganisms colonize external or internal surfaces of a host depending on environmental factors, and may supply the host with special functions. More and more researchers have proven that symbiotic gut microorganisms are related to a diverse range of physiological functions of a host including immunity, nutrition, metabolism and even mental health. Thus, gut microorganisms comprise an important “microbial organ” in humans. Since the early days of microbiota research, animal models have been used frequently for their microbiota, contributing greatly to new research in this field. This review provides an overview of animals used as models in symbiotic microorganism studies, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), mice (Mus musculus), pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We provide insight into the development and characteristics of these model animals, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each model, as well as any outstanding scientific achievements based on their use. We also note that honey bee (Apis), fruit fly (Drosophila) and nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) models are emerging as more prevalent in recent gut microbiota studies. This paper will contribute to better understanding the similarities and differences between the microbiota of model animals and humans, while providing useful information for effectively implementing these animal models in future research.

Key words: symbiotic microorganisms, host, animal models, gut microbiota