生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 414-426.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018029

• 综述 • 上一篇    

栽培植物野生近缘种的保护与利用

赵耀1, 李耕耘2, 杨继2,*()   

  1. 1 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所, 南昌 330031
    2 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-30 接受日期:2018-04-16 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 杨继
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    上海市科学技术委员会课题(14DZ2260400)和国家自然科学青年基金(31600293)

Conservation and utilization of wild relatives of cultivated plants

Yao Zhao1, Gengyun Li2, Ji Yang2,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2018-01-30 Accepted:2018-04-16 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Yang Ji
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

栽培植物是人类赖以生存和发展的重要物质基础。全球人口与人均需求量的持续增长导致对植物资源的需求与日俱增。栽培植物较低的遗传多样性是限制其产量增长和质量提高的主要因素。栽培植物野生近缘种在自然环境中积累了丰富的遗传变异, 并在应对环境变化的过程中产生了很多新的适应性状, 是栽培植物种质创新和品种改良的重要遗传资源。然而, 栽培植物野生近缘种的存续和自然进化因生境破坏以及全球气候变化等正面临严重威胁, 需要采取有效的措施进行保护。本文总结了国内外对栽培植物野生近缘种进行原生境保护与迁地保护所取得的进展, 并基于我国实际情况提出了栽培植物野生近缘种的保护建议。此外, 本文还对栽培植物野生近缘种利用技术进行了梳理, 探讨了栽培植物野生近缘种遗传资源可持续利用的新思路。最后, 我们以长江流域几种代表性栽培植物为例, 对主要作物类型的保护与利用情况进行了讨论。

关键词: 栽培植物, 野生近缘种, 原生境保护, 迁地保护, 利用

Abstract:

Cultivated plants are the most important material basis for human survival and development. Growing global human population and personal demands result in increasing consumption of plant resources. The low genetic diversity of cultivated plants is a key factor that restricts production and quality improvements. Wild relatives of cultivated plants have accumulated rich genetic variations and adaptive traits during the process of long-term adaptive evolution, thus can be used as genetic donors in germplasm innovation and improvement of cultivated plants. However, the persistence and evolution of wild relative populations are threatened by habitat destruction and anthropogenic climate change. This review summarizes the progress of in situ and ex situ conservation of wild relatives of cultivated plants and offers conservation suggestions for wild relatives of cultivated plants based on the current situation in China. Moreover, technologies for the utilization of wild relatives of cultivated plants are reviewed and new insights on the sustainable use of genetic resources of wild crop relatives are also discussed. Finally, the status of conservation and utilization of the main cultivated plants that originated from the Yangtze River Basin are investigated, with four plants of different uses used as representatives.

Key words: cultivated plants, wild relatives, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, utilization