生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 588-597.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015348

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中国两栖动物受威胁现状评估

江建平1,,A;*(), 谢锋1, 臧春鑫1, 蔡蕾3, 李成1, 王斌1, 李家堂1, 王杰1, 胡军华1, 王燕1, 刘炯宇1   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    2 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
    3 中华人民共和国环境保护部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-10 接受日期:2016-05-07 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2018-08-09
  • 通讯作者: 江建平
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国脊椎动物红色名录项目和国家自然科学基金(NSFC 31471964)

Assessing the threat status of amphibians in China

Jianping Jiang1,*(), Feng Xie1, Chunxin Zang2, Lei Cai3, Cheng Li1, Bin Wang1, Jiatang Li1, Jie Wang1, Junhua Hu1, Yan Wang1, Jiongyu Liu1   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    3 Department of Nature and Ecological Conservation, Ministry of Environmental Protection, P. R. China, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2015-12-10 Accepted:2016-05-07 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2018-08-09
  • Contact: Jiang Jianping

摘要:

为了了解我国两栖动物受威胁现状和致危因素, 进而制定相关的保护措施和开展国际合作, 本文依据中国两栖动物野生种群与生境现状, 利用《IUCN物种红色名录濒危等级和标准》(3.1版)和《IUCN物种红色名录标准在国家或地区的应用指南》(4.0版), 对中国已知的408种两栖动物的濒危状况进行了评估, 并编制了《中国两栖动物红色名录》。评估结果表明: 中国两栖动物有1种灭绝, 1种区域灭绝, 受威胁的两栖动物共计176种, 占评估物种总数的43.1%, 明显高于《IUCN濒危物种红色名录》(2015)的物种受威胁率(30.8%)。中国两栖动物特有种272种, 其中48.9%属于受威胁物种。中国两栖动物受威胁比例最高的目是有尾目(63.4%), 明显高于无尾目(39.0%); 受威胁比例最高的科是隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchidae) (仅有1种, 100%受威胁), 小鲵科(Hynobiidae) (86.7%)和叉舌蛙科(Dicroglossidae) (78.1%)。有11个省区的受威胁物种数占本省区两栖动物物种总数的30%及以上, 前3位分别是四川(40.8%)、广西(39.2%)和云南(37%)。中国大多数两栖动物物种分布在西南山地和华南地区, 以海拔2,000 m以下区域为主。栖息地退化或丧失、捕捉、环境污染列受威胁两栖动物致危因子的前3位。鉴于中国两栖动物区系的复杂性和独特性, 进一步加强两栖动物资源调查、种群和生境监测及相关科学研究, 仍是今后一段时期开展两栖动物多样性保护和濒危物种拯救行动的关键性基础工作。

关键词: 红色名录, 灭绝, 区域灭绝, 极度濒危, 濒危, 易危, 濒危等级, 致危因子, 两栖纲, 中国

Abstract:

In order to clarify the threat status of Chinese amphibians and the conditions threatening these species, we compiled a red list of amphibians in China based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), and Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels (Version 4.0). This red list, which includes details on population and habitat status, rates of population decline, and projected population trends, will facilitate development of protective management agreements for Chinese administrative departments, the Chinese public, and international organizations. We evaluated 408 amphibian species and discovered that 43.1% of the evaluated species, i.e., 176 species, were threatened, which exceeds the net percentage of threatened amphibian species throughout the entire world. One species was classified as “Extinct” and another species was classified as “Regionally Extinct”. There are 272 amphibian species endemic to China, and 48.9% of them were threatened. The tailed amphibian order (Urodela) possessed the highest ratios of threatened species, followed by the tailless amphibian order (Anura). The families with the highest percentages of threatened species were Cryptobranchidae (100% threatened), Hynobiidae (86.7% threatened), and Dicroglossidae (78.1% threatened). In eleven provinces, more than 30% of the local amphibian species were classified as threatened species, with the provinces Sichuan (40.8%), Guangxi (39.2%), and Yunnan (37.0%) having the highest percentage of threatened amphibians. Most of China’s amphibians are distributed in southwestern and southern China and below 2,000 m altitude. Habitat degeneration and loss, human capture, and pollution were the three leading threats to amphibians in China. In order to restore endangered amphibian populations and conserve amphibian diversity in China, more population surveys and monitoring projects as well as scientific research on Chinese amphibians are necessary.

Key words: Red list, Extinct, Regionally Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, threat factor, amphibia, China