生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 568-577.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015294

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中国鸟类红色名录评估

张雁云1, 张正旺1, 董路1, 丁平2, 丁长青3, 马志军4, 郑光美1,,A;*()   

  1. 1生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875
    2 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
    3北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
    4生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-25 接受日期:2016-01-04 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2018-08-09
  • 通讯作者: 郑光美
  • 基金资助:
    环保部生物多样性专项

Assessment of red list of birds in China

Yanyun Zhang1, Zhengwang Zhang1, Lu Dong1, Ping Ding2, Changqing Ding3, Zhijun Ma4, Guangmei Zheng1,*()   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    2 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    3 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    4 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2015-10-25 Accepted:2016-01-04 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2018-08-09
  • Contact: Zheng Guangmei

摘要:

中国有1,372种鸟类, 其中77种为中国特有。由于资源过度利用、栖息地丧失和片断化、环境污染等原因, 中国的鸟类多样性保护面临严峻的挑战。为了全面评估当前中国野生鸟类的濒危状况, 国家环境保护部支持启动了“中国脊椎动物红色名录”的编制工作。依照IUCN的标准, 对中国鸟类的受胁状况进行了一次全面评估。通过确定评估对象、数据收集、初评、初核、复审、定稿等步骤, 集国内27位鸟类学家的力量, 完成了本次评估。结果表明: 区域灭绝(RE)3种, 分别是白鹳(Ciconia ciconia)、镰翅鸡(Falcipennis falcipennis)和赤颈鹤(Grus antigone), 极危(CR)15种, 濒危(EN)51种, 易危(VU)80种, 近危(NT)190种; 无危(LC)876种, 数据缺乏(DD)157种。列为极危、濒危和易危等级的受胁鸟类合计146种, 占中国鸟类种数的10.6%。受威胁程度最高的科是鹈鹕科和犀鸟科, 这两个科100%的物种都属于受胁种。。77种特有鸟类中有29种(37.7%)属于受胁种。陆禽和猛禽是受胁最严重的生态类群, 分别有25.2%和23.2%的种类处于受胁状态。不同行政区域受胁鸟类差异较大。本工作对于我国鸟类保护和履行国际公约等工作均有重要意义。

关键词: 鸟类, 红色名录, 保护, 特有, 受胁

Abstract:

There are 1,372 bird species, including 77 endemic species in China. The over-exploitation of resources, habitat loss, fragmentation, and environmental pollution challenges the conservation of Chinese birds. In order to comprehensively evaluate the status of threatened birds in China, the Red List of Vertebrates (Bird) in China, supported by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China, was initiated. According to IUCN red list criteria, this evaluation was accomplished by 27 researchers following the steps: confirm the evaluated species, data collection, preliminary evaluation, preliminary check, interactive check and finalization. Our evaluation demonstrated that three species (white stork Ciconia ciconia, siberian spruce grouse Falcipennis falcipennis, and sarus crane Grus antigone) are characterized as Regionally Extinct (RE), 15 species among them are Critically Endangered (CR), 51 species are Endangered (EN), 80 species are Vulnerable (VU), 190 species are Near Threatened (NT), 876 species are characterized as of Least Concern (LC), and 157 species are Data Deficient (DD). Overall, 146 bird species (10.6% of the birds of China) were threatened (including CR, EN, and VU), and of these, 29 endemic species (37.7%) were listed as threatened. The proportion of threatened birds from different orders and regions were calculated, and the major threat factors to the birds of China were analyzed. Top two families with the highest proportion of threatened bird species are Pelecanidae and Bucerotidae, 100% species of these families were listed as threatened. Terrestores and raptors were more threatened birds across different ecological groups, and 25.2% and 23.2% species listed as threatened birds respectively. There is great difference on the number and proportion of threatened species in different administrative regions. Thus, this work is important to the conservation of the birds of China.

Key words: birds, red list, conservation, endemic, threatened