生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 673-680.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015136

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建立生物多样性保护相关国际公约的国家履约协同战略

薛达元*()   

  1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-19 接受日期:2015-08-16 出版日期:2015-09-20 发布日期:2015-10-12
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元
  • 基金资助:
    高等学校学科创新引智计划(“111计划”B08044)和环保部生物多样性保护专项

On establishing the national synergy strategy for the implementation of international agreements related to biodiversity conservation

Dayuan Xue*()   

  1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2015-05-19 Accepted:2015-08-16 Online:2015-09-20 Published:2015-10-12
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan

摘要:

目前国际层面已有多个与生物多样性保护有关的多边公约(包括条约和协定), 如《生物多样性公约》、《濒危动植物种国际贸易公约》、《湿地公约》等。本文基于相关国际公约的既有战略目标, 分析了这些战略目标与保护生物多样性之间的关系。这些公约的实施在国际层面是由联合国的不同机构负责, 在国家层次也是由不同的政府部门来牵头。在中国, 生物多样性相关公约的履行机构主要有环境保护、林业、农业等多个政府主管部门。我国现有履约机制的模式是针对某一公约建立一个多部门的履约协调委员会, 并在牵头部门建立一个行政办事机构。履约工作中常见的问题有: 各履约机构在参与公约国际谈判和开展国内履约工作中因缺少沟通和协调, 造成对外政策不一致、对内工作重复的现象; 部门间缺少信息共享机制, 甚至相互不提供数据。最后, 作者建议在国家层次上建立生物多样性国际履约的协同战略, 包括为协调生物多样性议题的国际谈判立场而建立协同工作组, 为增强国家履约效率而综合各部门履约行动, 以及建立国家生物多样性信息交换机制等。

关键词: 生物多样性, 国际谈判, 履约, 国家战略, 中国

Abstract:

Internationally, there are a series of conventions (including treaties and agreements) related to biodiversity conservation, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention). At the international level, these are implemented by different United Nation’s organizations and at the national level by various responding ministries. In China, the leading authorities for implementing the biodiversity-related conventions are the ministries of environmental protection, forestry, agriculture, etc. However, there is very little communication and coordination among the leading ministries for participation in international negotiations and domestic implementation, resulting in the inconformity of external policies and repetition of internal implementation actions. In this paper, the explicit relations between the conventions’ objectives and biodiversity conservation are clarified, and based on existing domestic coordination mechanisms for each convention implementation in China, the current mechanism is to establish a multi-ministerial coordination committee coupled with an administrative body for actions set in the responsible ministry. Furthermore, the problems often existing in the convention implementation are revealed as follows: (1) shortage of communication and coordination among the competent authorities leading conventions’ implementation; (2) lack of information sharing mechanism among the relevant ministries; and (3) inadequate mutual support from the partner ministries. Finally, it is proposed, in this paper, to establish a synergy strategy at the national level for implementation of the conventions related to biodiversity, including setting up a synergy working group special for coordinating the state positions for the conventions’ intergovernmental negotiations on biodiversity issues and for enhancing the efficiency of the implementation actions by integrating the efforts from relevant ministries, as well as establishment of national clearing-house mechanism for biodiversity.

Key words: biodiversity, international negotiation, conventions’ implementation, national strategy, China