生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (6): 626-638.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2004078

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国外来入侵物种的分布与传入路径分析

徐海根1*, 强胜2, 韩正敏3, 郭建英4, 黄宗国5, 孙红英6, 何舜平7, 丁晖1, 吴海荣2, 万方浩4   

  1. 1(国家环境保护总局南京环境科学研究所,南京210042)
    2(南京农业大学杂草研究室,南京210095)
    3(南京林业大学,南京210037)
    4(中国农业科学院生物防治研究所,北京100081)
    5(国家海洋局第三海洋研究所,厦门361005)
    6(南京师范大学生命科学学院,南京210097)
    7(中国科学院水生生物研究所,武汉430072)
  • 收稿日期:2004-01-17 修回日期:2004-10-09 出版日期:2004-11-20 发布日期:2004-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐海根

The distribution and introduction pathway of alien invasive species in China

XU Hai-Gen1*, QIANG Sheng2, HAN Zheng-Min3,GUO Jian-Ying4,HUANG Zong-Guo5, SUN Hong-Ying6,HE Shun-Ping7, DING Hui1, WU Hai-Rong2, WAN Fang-Hao4   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences,State Environmental Protection Administration, Nanjing 210042
    2 Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    3 Nanjing Forestry University,Nanjing 210037
    4 Institute of Biological Control, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    5 Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration,Xiamen 361005
    6 College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210097
    7 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
  • Received:2004-01-17 Revised:2004-10-09 Online:2004-11-20 Published:2004-11-20
  • Contact: XU Hai-Gen

摘要: 外来物种入侵已成为全球性的环境问题。本文采用文献调研、实地考察与专家咨询相结合的方式,调查了全国陆生、淡水水生生态系统中外来入侵微生物、无脊椎动物、两栖爬行类、鱼类、鸟类、哺乳类、杂草、树木和海洋生态系统中外来入侵物种的种类及分类地位、起源、引入路径和环境影响等内容。查明我国共有283种外来入侵物种,其中外来入侵微生物、水生植物、陆生植物、水生无脊椎动物、陆生无脊椎动物、两栖爬行类、鱼类、哺乳类分别为19种、18种、170种、25种、33种、3种、10种和5种;来源于美洲、欧洲、亚洲、非洲、大洋洲的外来入侵物种分别占55.1%、21.7%、9.9%、8.1%和0.6%。我国对外来物种的引进存在一定程度的盲目性:50.0%的外来入侵植物是作为牧草或饲料、观赏植物、纤维植物、药用植物、蔬菜、草坪植物而引进的;25%的外来入侵动物是用于养殖、观赏、生物防治的引种。对外来物种只重引进、疏于管理,也可能导致外来物种逃逸到自然环境中,造成潜在的环境灾害。此外,在检疫方面也存在很多薄弱环节,所有外来入侵微生物是随引进的原木、幼树、苗木、花钵、土壤而无意传入的;76.3%的外来入侵动物是由于检查不严,随贸易物品或运输工具传入我国的。因此,我国既要加强检疫工作,又要对外来物种的有意引进进行严格管理,实行外来物种引进的风险评估制度。

关键词: 土壤杂草种子库, 农业生态系统, 生物多样性, 施肥方式

AbstractAlien invasive species have become a serious environmental issue throughout the world. It is necessary to launch a nationwide investigation on alien invasive species, so as to obtain baseline data, identify causes of invasion, and put forward effective control strategies and measures. Data on classification, origin, pathway and environmental impacts of alien invasive micro-organisms, invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, fish, birds, mammals, weeds, trees in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and alien invasive species in marine ecosystems of China were analyzed, based on literature research, field survey and consultation. 283 alien invasive species have been identified in China, and the number of species of alien invasive micro-organisms, aquatic plants, terrestrial plants, aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, fish, and mammals were 19, 18, 170, 25, 33, 3, 10, and 5, respectively. The proportion of alien invasive species originating from America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania were 55.1%, 21.7%, 9.9%, 8.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Many institutions and individuals in China lack adequate knowledge of ecological and environmental consequences caused by alien invasive species, with some blindness in the introduction of alien species. For instance, 50.0% of alien invasive plants were intentionally introduced as pasture, feed stock, ornamental plants, textile plants, medicinal plants, vegetables, or lawn plants. 25% of alien invasive animals were intentionally introduced for cultivation, recreation, or biological control. In addition, much effort has been made on introduction of alien species, and little attention has been paid to the management of introduced alien species, which may allow their escape into natural environments and potential threats to the environment. There are also gaps in the quarantine system in China. All invasive micro-organisms were unintentionally introduced, through timber, seedlings, flowerpots, or soil. 76.3% of alien invasive animals invaded through commodity or transportation facilities because of the failure of quarantine. It is recommended that quarantine measures should be strictly implemented. At the same time, the intentional introduction of alien species should be strictly managed and a system of risk assessment should be implemented.

Key words: soil weed seed bank, agricultural ecosystem, biodiversity, fertilizer management

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