生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (2): 121-127.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.050168

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

道路及道路施工对若尔盖高寒湿地小型兽类及鸟类生境利用的影响

戴强1,2, 袁佐平3, 张晋东1,2, 杨勇4, 张明4, 张强4, 顾海军1,2, 刘志君1, 蹇依5, 王跃招1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
    3 (北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875)
    4 (若尔盖国家级湿地保护区管理局, 若尔盖 624500)
    5 (四川省交通厅交通勘察设计研究院, 成都 610041)
  • 收稿日期:2005-08-05 修回日期:2006-02-09 出版日期:2006-03-20 发布日期:2006-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 王跃招

Road and road construction effects on habitat use of small mammals and birds in Zoige alpine wetland

Qiang Dai 1, 2, Zuoping Yuan3, Jindong Zhang1, 2, Yong Yang4, Ming Zhang4, Qiang Zhang4, Haijun Gu1, 2, Zhijun Liu1, Yi Jian5, Yuezhao Wang1*   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    4 Management Bureau of Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, Zoige 624500
    5 Sichuan Institute of Communication Surveying and Design, Sichuan Province Communications Department, Chengdu 610041
  • Received:2005-08-05 Revised:2006-02-09 Online:2006-03-20 Published:2006-03-20
  • Contact: Yuezhao Wang

摘要: 为考察道路和道路施工对若尔盖高寒泥炭湿地野生动物的影响, 我们在穿过若尔盖湿地的2条道路两侧, 对距道路不同距离的小型兽类和鸟类分布进行了调查, 其中小型兽类调查深度距离公路800 m, 鸟类调查深度距离公路400 m。施工中的国道213线路两侧黑唇鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)洞穴高密度区域离道路更远, 在道路两侧400 m处达到峰值, 极显著高于距离道路10 m处的密度; 而在正常运营中的省道209线两侧, 其洞穴密度在200 m处达到最高值, 与其他距离的洞穴密度没有显著性差异。无论在国道213线还是省道209线, 道路对高原鼢鼠(Myospalax baileyi)洞穴分布的影响均未达到显著性水平。在正常运营的省道209线两侧, 高原鼢鼠土堆密度最高区域为距离道路100 m处; 而施工的道路两侧高原鼢鼠土堆密度最高区域则出现在距离道路10 m处, 第二高峰出现在距离道路400 m处。雀形目和隼形目鸟类的分布均呈现距离道路越远密度越高的趋势, 但是只有距离道路400 m处雀形目鸟类的密度显著高于50 m与200 m处; 距离道路不同距离的样线中隼形目鸟类密度和物种丰富度没有显著性差异。由此可以看出, 施工中的道路对黑唇鼠兔的影响区域比正常运营的道路更宽, 其公路效应域达到400 m, 400 m的调查深度对鸟类尤其是隼形目鸟类来说可能还略有不足。但是, 根据此深度的调查可以确定施工中的国道213线雀形目和隼形目鸟类的公路效应域宽度大于400 m。

关键词: 种子植物, 物种丰富度, 海拔梯度, 面积, 中间膨胀效应

Abstract: To investigate the effects of road and road construction on habitat use of wildlife, we surveyed the distribution of small mammals and birds in the vicinity of two roads, one operational and one under construc-tion, in Zoige alpine wetland, Sichuan. To investigate mammals, average herb height and herb coverage, we set up eight plots on each side of the two roads. In each plot, we set up seven subplots at various distances, i.e. 10 m, 20 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m away from the roads. In each subplot we established three 10 m×10 m grids. We counted burrows of Ochotona curzoniae and mounds of Myospalax baileyi to calculate density. We also set up eight plots on one side of the road under construction to record the species and number of birds. In each plot, we set up 500 m-long-transects at distances of 50 m, 200 m, and 400 m away from the road. The results showed that the average density of burrows of O. curzoniae peaked in grids 400 m from edge of road under construction where it was significantly higher than that of grids 10 m from road edge. However, for operational road, the average density of burrows was highest in grids 200 m from road edge, and no significant differences were found among grids at different distances. As for the density of mounds of M. baileyi, there was no significant difference among the grids at different distances from both roads. The average density of mound of M. baileyi peaked in grids 100 m from working road edge, while it peaked in grids 10 m from edge of road under construction. In general, the density of both Passeriformes and Falconiformes birds tended to increase with the distance away from the roads while this trend was not found in bird richness. The Passeriformes birds were significantly denser in transects at 400 m than in those at 200 m and 50 m, whereas the Falconiformes birds showed no significant variation. In conclusion, the road-effect zone for Ochotona curzoniae is 400 m wide, whereas for birds, especially Falconiformes, it is wider than 400 m.

Key words: seed plants, species richness, altitudinal gradient, area, mid-domain effect