Biodiversity Science ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 26-40.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019153

• Editorial • Previous Article     Next Article

Threat status of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes in China and its threatening factors

Wenying Zhuang1, *(), Yi Li1, 2, Huandi Zheng1, Zhaoqing Zeng1, Xincun Wang1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
  • Received:2019-05-07 Accepted:2019-06-14 Online:2019-10-16
  • Wenying Zhuang E-mail:zhuangwy@im.ac.cn

On May 22, 2018, the 25th International Day for Biological Diversity, a “China Biodiversity Red List—Macrofungi” was officially released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The List included 870 species of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes (as “macro-ascomycetes” below). A total of 24 species were listed as threatened including 1 Possibly Extinct, 6 Critically Endangered, 3 Endangered and 14 Vulnerable, accounting for 2.76% of the species assessed. Besides, 189 macro-ascomycetes were assessed as Least Concern and 616 as Data Deficient, accounting for 21.72% and 70.80%, respectively. The evaluation method, assessment process and results were presented herein; and the status of the China’s macro-ascomycetes, geographic distribution of the threatened species and major threatening factors were analyzed. The conservation actions and advices were also proposed. Fungal taxonomy is fundamental of and essential for evaluation of biodiversity red list of threatened species. In a relatively long period of time, field investigations and taxonomic studies are critical tasks and need continuous financial support from different sources. Future evaluations of threatened species of macrofungi in China rely on co-operations among taxonomists, workers in nature reserves, ecologists and amateurs.

Key words: non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes, red list, biodiversity, conservation biology

Table 1

Species numbers of different groups of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes evaluated according to the IUCN Red List categories. EX, Extinct; EW, Extinct in the Wild; PE, Possibly Extinct; CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Threatened; LC, Least Concern; DD, Data Deficient."

评估类群
Fungal groups evaluated
物种数
Species
受威胁等级及物种数 Red list categories and species no.
灭绝
EX
野外灭绝
EW
疑似灭绝
PE
极危
CR
濒危
EN
易危
VU
近危
NT
无危
LC
数据不足
DD
座囊菌纲 Dothideomycetes
未定目
Incertae sedis
未定科
Incertae sedis
小碗菌属
Catinella
1 1
胶皿菌目
Patellariales
胶皿菌科Patellariaceae
皱裂菌属
Rhytidhysteron
3 3
卷边盘菌属
Tryblidiella
2 2
格孢腔菌目
Pleosporales
竹黄科
Shiraiaceae
竹黄属
Shiraia
1 1
地舌菌纲 Geoglossomycetes
地舌菌目
Geoglossales
地舌菌科Geoglossaceae
地舌菌属
Geoglossum
13 1 1 4 7
小舌菌属
Microglossum
7 1 2 4
假地杖菌属
Nothomitra
1 1
肉锤菌属
Sarcoleotia
1 1
毛舌菌属
Trichoglossum
17 5 2 5 5
锤舌菌纲 Leotiomycetes
柔膜菌目
Helotiales
绿杯盘菌科Chlorociboriaceae 绿杯盘菌属Chlorociboria 3 2 1
皮盘菌科Dermateaceae 绿盘菌属
Chlorosplenium
2 2
柔膜菌目
Helotiales
皮盘菌属
Dermea
4 4
无柄盘菌属
Pezicula
8 8
长孢盘菌科Godroniaceae 长孢盘菌属
Godronia
2 2
柔膜菌科
Helotiaceae
紫胶菌属
Ascocoryne
3 1 2
胶盘菌属
Ascotremella
2 2
复柄盘菌属
Cordierites
1 1
聚盘菌属
Ionomidotis
2 2
贫盘菌科Hemiphacidiaceae 绿散胞盘菌属
Chlorencoelia
2 1 1
毛盘菌科
Lachnaceae
新胶鼓菌属
Neobulgaria
1 1
锤舌菌科
Leotiaceae
锤舌菌属
Leotia
6 2 4
蜡盘菌科Rutstroemiaceae 蜡盘菌属
Rutstroemia
7 1 2 4
核盘菌科Sclerotiniaceae 杯盘菌属
Ciboria
7 1 2 4
散胞盘菌属
Encoelia
5 1 1 3
地杖菌属
Mitrula
4 4
核盘菌属
Sclerotinia
9 2 7
未定目
Incertae sedis
未定科
Incertaesedis
假地舌菌属
Hemiglossum
1 1
白舌菌属
Leucoglossum
1 1
星裂盘菌目
Phacidiales
星裂盘菌科Phacidiaceae 胶鼓菌属
Bulgaria
1 1
芽孢盘菌科Tympanidaceae 胶莓盘菌属
Myriodiscus
1 1
斑痣盘菌
Rhytismatales
地锤菌科
Cudoniaceae
地锤菌属
Cudonia
7 2 5
地匙菌属
Spathularia
1 1
拟地匙菌属
Spathulariopsis
1 1
斑痣盘菌科
Rhytismataceae
弯壳菌属
Colpoma
3 1 2
无丝盘菌纲 Neolectomycetes
无丝盘菌目
Neolectales
无丝盘菌科Neolectaceae 无丝盘菌属
Neolecta
2 1 1

Fig. 1

Species number and the percentage of individual classes of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes eva-luated"

Fig. 2

Species number of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes evaluated and their percentages according to the IUCN Red List categories. DD, Data Deficient; LC, Least Concern; PE, Possibly Extinct; CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Threatened."

Table 2

The IUCN Red List category, taxonomic family, distribution and usage of each threatened species of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes. CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable, PE, Possibly Extinct."

物种
Species
等级
Categories

Family
地理分布
Distribution
中国特有种
Endemism
用途
Usage
美洲饰孢盘菌
Aleurina americana
易危
VU
火丝菌科
Pyronemataceae
中国吉林; 美国
China: Jinlin; USA
否 No
桦杯盘菌
Ciboria betulae
易危
VU
核盘菌科
Sclerotiniaceae
中国内蒙古; 俄罗斯
China: Neimenggu; Russia
否 No
古巴散胞盘菌
Encoelia cubensis
易危
VU
核盘菌科
Sclerotiniaceae
中国广东、广西; 哥伦比亚; 圭亚那; 委内瑞拉
China: Guangdong, Guangxi; Columbia; Guyana; Venezuela
否 No
中华肉球菌
Engleromyces sinensis
易危
VU
炭角菌科
Xylariaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes 食药用
Edible, Medicinal
细小地舌菌
Geoglossum pusillum
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国江西
China: Jiangxi
是 Yes
粘地舌菌
Glutinoglossum glutinosum
易危
VU
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国四川、云南; 印度; 日本; 芬兰; 德国; 爱尔兰; 意大利; 挪威; 俄罗斯; 瑞典; 英国; 加拿大; 哥斯达黎加; 美国; 澳大利亚; 新西兰
China: Sichuan, Yunnan; India; Japan; Finland; Germany; Ireland; Italy; Norway; Russia; Sweden; United Kingdom; Canada; Costa Rica; USA; Australia; New Zealand
否 No
云南假地舌菌
Hemiglossum yunnanense
疑似灭绝
PE
未定科
Incertae sedis
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
西藏羊肚菌
Morchella tibetica
易危
VU
羊肚菌科
Morchellaceae
中国云南、西藏
China: Yunnan, Xizang
是 Yes 食用
Edible
老君山线虫草
Ophiocordyceps laojunshanensis
易危
VU
线虫草科Ophiocordycipita-
ceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes 食药用
Edible, medicinal
冬虫夏草
Ophiocordyceps sinensis
易危
VU
线虫草科
Ophiocordycipitaceae
中国甘肃、青海、四川、云南、西藏; 不丹; 印度; 尼泊尔
China: Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Xizang; Bhutan; India; Nepal
否 No 食药用
Edible, medicinal
巨孢奇块菌
Paradoxa gigantospora
濒危
EN
块菌科
Tuberaceae
中国四川、云南
China: Sichuan, Yunnan
是 Yes 食用
Edible
竹黄
Shiraia bambusicola
易危
VU
竹黄科
Shiraiaceae
中国陕西、安徽、浙江、江西、湖南、四川、
贵州、云南、福建; 日本
China: Shaanxi, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Fujian; Japan
否 No 药用
Medicinal
广东虫草
Tolypocladium guangdongense
易危
VU
线虫草科
Ophiocordycipitaceae
中国广东
China: Guangdong
是 Yes 食药用
Edible, medicinal
景洪毛舌菌
Trichoglossum cheliense
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
紊乱毛舌菌
Trichoglossum confusum
濒危
EN
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国江苏; 美国
China: Jiangsu; USA
否 No
昆明毛舌菌
Trichoglossum kunmingense
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
珀松毛舌菌
Trichoglossum persoonii
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
罕见毛舌菌
Trichoglossum rasum
濒危
EN
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国浙江、云南; 印度尼西亚; 波兰; 百慕大;
古巴; 巴拿马; 美国; 新喀里多尼亚
China: Zhejiang, Yunnan; Indonesia; Poland; Bermuda; Cuba; Panama; USA; New Caledonia
否 No
中国毛舌菌
Trichoglossum sinicum
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
四孢毛舌菌
Trichoglossum tetrasporum
极危
CR
地舌菌科
Geoglossaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
会东块菌
Tuber huidongense
易危
VU
块菌科
Tuberaceae
中国四川、云南
China: Sichuan, Yunnan
是 Yes 食用
Edible
印度块菌
Tuber indicum
易危
VU
块菌科
Tuberaceae
中国北京、甘肃、四川、云南; 印度
China: Beijing, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan; India
否 No 食用
Edible
攀枝花块菌
Tuber panzhihuanense
易危
VU
块菌科
Tuberaceae
中国四川、云南
China: Sichuan, Yunnan
是 Yes 食用
Edible
中华夏块菌
Tuber sinoaestivum
易危
VU
块菌科
Tuberaceae
中国四川
China: Sichuan
是 Yes 食用
Edible
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