Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 873-879.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019060

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Potential distribution and ecological niches of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi in Northeast China

Hai-Sheng Yuan1, *(), Yulian Wei1, Liwei Zhou1, Wenmin Qin1, Baokai Cui2, Shuanghui He2   

  1. 1. CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110164
    2. Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2019-02-28 Accepted:2019-04-25 Online:2019-09-25
  • Yuan Hai-Sheng

Lignicolous fungi, including dozens of butt-rot pathogenic fungi, are abundant in Northeast China. In the past decades, many investigations have been carried out on fungal species diversity, and thus plentiful species distribution data has been obtained. However, it is not clear whether there remains a region that has yet to be investigated for the presence of fungal species. In this study, four representative butt-rot pathogenic fungi, Fomitopsis pinicola, Porodaedalea laricis, Piptoporus betulinus and Trametes suaveolens, of Northeast China were selected. Their geographical distribution data and the correlating environmental factors were used to model their potential distribution using the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was examined to evaluate the model performance. Thus, the ecological niches of these species were analyzed. The results showed that all the species prediction models obtained high AUC values (0.990, 0.990, 0.989 and 0.967), which suggests that the prediction models were effective for the four species. The most effective environmental variables, which were the precipitation of warmest quarter (Bio18), the temperature annual range (Bio7) and the mean temperature of driest quarter (Bio9), were shown to contribute more to the species distribution models than other factors. The results delineate possible distribution ranges for the four pathogenic fungi in Northeast China, thereby offering forest managers a guide for where to focus prevention and treatment efforts for these pathogenic fungi.

Key words: MaxEnt, AUC, butt-rot pathogenic fungi, ecological niches

Fig. 1

Basidiocarps of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi. (a) Fomitopsis pinicola; (b) Porodaedalea laricis; (c) Piptoporus betulinus; (d) Trametes suaveolens."

Fig. 2

Collection points of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi from Northeast China"

Table 1

Training and test AUC values obtained in the models for four butt-rot pathogenic fungi"

Registered presence
Number of training points
Training AUC
Test AUC
红缘拟层孔菌 Fomitopsis pinicola 29 9 0.984 0.990
落叶松锈迷孔菌 Porodaedalea laricis 9 3 0.933 0.990
桦剥管孔菌 Piptoporus betulinus 21 7 0.984 0.989
香栓孔菌 Trametes suaveolens 24 7 0.981 0.967

Fig. 3

Potential distributions of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi. (a) Fomitopsis pinicola; (b) Porodaedalea laricis; (c) Piptoporus betulinus; (d) Trametes suaveolens. White squares are training points, purple squares are testing points."

Table 2

Environmental variables used to create the species distribution model and their percentage contribution to model performance"

Environmental variable
贡献率 Contribution (%)
Piptoporus betulinus
Trametes suaveolens
Bio1 年均温 Annual mean temperature (℃) 6.1 0 11.8 2.9
Bio2 昼夜温差月均值
Mean diurnal range (mean of monthly (max - min temp)) (℃)
0 0.9 0 0
Bio3 等温性 Isothermality ((Bio2/Bio7) × 100) 5.2 0 5.6 4.1
Bio4 温度季节性变化标准差
Temperature seasonality (standard deviation × 100) (C of V)
16.6 0 6.6 34.9
Bio5 最暖月最高温 Maximum temperature of warmest month (℃) 0 0 0 0
Bio6 最冷月最低温 Minimum temperature of coldest month (℃) 0.5 0 2.9 1.7
Bio7 温度的年较差 Temperature annual range (Bio5 - Bio6) (℃) 29.9 4.3 17.6 4.2
Bio8 最湿季均温 Mean temperature of wettest quarter (℃) 0 0 0 0.3
Bio9 最干季均温 Mean temperature of driest quarter (℃) 7 78.8 18.1 0
Bio10 最暖季均温 Mean temperature of warmest quarter (℃) 0 0 0 0
Bio11 最冷季均温 Mean temperature of coldest quarter (℃) 1.5 0 6.7 2.1
Bio12 年降水量 Annual precipitation (mm) 0 0 0 0
Bio13 最湿月降水量 Precipitation of wettest month (mm) 0 0 0.6 0
Bio14 最干月降水量 Precipitation of driest month (mm) 0 0 0 0
Bio15 降水量季节性变异系数
Precipitation seasonality (coefficient of variation) (C of V)
0.5 1.7 0 4.4
Bio16 最湿季降水量 Precipitation of wettest quarter (mm) 0 0 0 0
Bio17 最干季降水量 Precipitation of driest quarter (mm) 5.5 0 4.9 6.9
Bio18 最暖季降水量 Precipitation of warmest quarter (mm) 25 6.2 23.5 36.3
Bio19 最冷季降水量 Precipitation of coldest quarter (mm) 0.8 0 0.4 0.2
ELE 海拔 Elevation (m) 1.4 8.1 1.2 1.8

Fig. 4

Response curves of main climate factors in distribution models of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi"

Fig. 5

Three-dimensional climate niches of four butt-rot pathogenic fungi"

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