Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 351-364.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014202

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

China’s mammalian diversity

Zhigang Jiang1, *, Yong Ma1, Yi Wu2, Yingxiang Wang3, Zuojian Feng1, Kaiya Zhou4, Shaoying Liu5, Zhenhua Luo6, Chunwang Li1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006
    3 Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    4 School of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046
    5 Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081
    6 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
  • Received:2014-09-24 Accepted:2015-03-16 Online:2015-06-12
  • Jiang Zhigang E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn

China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

Key words: mammals, inventory, biodiversity, endemic species

Table 1

The mammal species of China recorded in this study in comparison with the records in literature"


Order

Family

Genus

Species
文献
Source
8 30 97 314 Allen, 1938-1940
382 郑作新, 1952
12 40 148 327 Ellerman & Morrison-Scott, 1951
12 52 180 405 寿振黄, 1963
12 44 183 414 张荣祖, 1979
418 郑作新, 1982
13 43 154 390 Honacki et al., 1982
14 45 430 盛和林等, 1983
13 46 169 467 中国科学院动物研究所, 19851)
13 54 210 509 郑昌琳, 1986
394 McNeely et al., 1990
14 44 155 405 Corbet & Hill, 1991
13 43 154 405 Wilson & Reeder, 1993
14
12
52
52
220
240
510
560
张荣祖, 1997
Nowak, 1999
13 55 235 607 王应祥, 2003
13 54 245 572 Wilson & Reeder, 2005
13 58 242 645 潘清华等, 2007
14 53 240 585 Smith et al., 2009
12 55 245 673 本研究 This study (2015)*

Table 2

Comprison of mammal diversities in the top 10 countries with most abundant mammal diversity in the world reported by IUCN and this study"

IUCN 红色名录(2014) IUCN Red List (2014) 本研究 This study
序号 国家 种数 序号 国家 种数
1 印度尼西亚 Indonesia 670 1 中国 China 673
2 巴西 Brazil 648 2 印度尼西亚 Indonesia 670
3 中国 China* 566 (551*) 3 巴西 Brazil 648
4 墨西哥 Mexico 523 4 墨西哥 Mexico 523
5 秘鲁 Peru 467 5 秘鲁 Peru 467
6 哥伦比亚 Colombia 442 6 哥伦比亚 Colombia 442
7 美国 The United States of America 440 7 美国 The United States of America 440
8 刚果 Congo, D.R. 430 8 刚果 Congo, D.R. 430
9 印度 India 412 9 印度 India 412
10 肯尼亚 Kenya 376 10 肯尼亚 Kenya 376

Table 3

Statistics of order, family, genus and species of mammals and ratio of endemic mammal species in China"


Order
科数
No. of family
属数
No. of genera
种数
No. of species
特有种
No. of endemic species
特有率
Endemic ratio (%)
劳亚食虫目 Eulipotyphla 3 24 87 30 34
攀鼩目 Scandentia 1 1 1 0 0
翼手目 Chiroptera 7 33 134 26 19
灵长目 Primates 4 9 27 6 22
鳞甲目 Pholidota 1 1 3 0 0
食肉目 Carnivora 10 39 58 2 3
海牛目 Sirenia 1 1 1 0 0
长鼻目 Proboscidea 1 1 1 0 0
奇蹄目 Perissodactyla 2 3 6 0 0
鲸偶蹄目 Cetartiodactyla 14 53 105 22 21
啮齿目 Rodentia 9 78 215 49 23
兔形目 Lagomorpha 2 2 35 15 43
总计 Total 55 245 673 150 22

Table 4

Species which were elevated from the status of subspecies to the status of species and were added to The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015"

中文名
Chinese name
种名
Species name
文献
Literature
中文名
Chinese name
种名
Species name
文献
Literature
米什米长尾鼩鼱 Episoriculus baileyi Motokawa & Lin, 2005 短尾黄鼠 Spermophilus brevicauda Smith et al., 2009
林猬 Mesechinus sylvaticus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 淡尾黄鼠 Spermophilus pallidicauda Smith et al., 2009
柯氏鼩鼱 Sorex kozlovi Wilson & Reeder, 2005 中亚兔 Lepus tibetanus Smith et al., 2009
台湾短尾鼩 Anourosorex yamashinai Wilson & Reeder, 2005 蒙古兔 Lepus tolai Smith et al., 2009
滇北长尾鼩 Chodsigoa parva Wilson & Reeder, 2005 宁夏鼠兔 Ochotona argentata Smith et al., 2009
五指山小麝鼩 Crocidura wuchihensis Wilson & Reeder, 2005 高丽兔 Lepus coreanus* Koh & Jang, 2010
中华菊头蝠 Rhinolophus sinicus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 海南麂 Muntiacus nigripes Groves & Grubb, 2011
大卫鼠耳蝠 Myotis davidii Wilson & Reeder, 2005 阿拉善马鹿 Cervus alashanicus Groves & Grubb, 2011
华南水鼠耳蝠 Myotis laniger Wilson & Reeder, 2005 东北梅花鹿 Cervus hortulorum Groves & Grubb, 2011
中华山蝠 Nyctalus plancyi Wilson & Reeder, 2005 四川马鹿 Cervus macneilli Groves & Grubb, 2011
东白眉长臂猿 Hoolock leuconedys Wilson & Reeder, 2005 华南梅花鹿 Cervus pseudaxis Groves & Grubb, 2011
华西鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii Wilson & Reeder, 2005 四川梅花鹿 Cervus sichuanicus Groves & Grubb, 2011
美洲驼鹿 Alces americanus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 台湾梅花鹿 Cervus taiouanus Groves & Grubb, 2011
银色高山? Alticola argentatus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 西藏马鹿 Cervus wallichii Groves & Grubb, 2011
高山仓鼠 Cricetulus alticola Wilson & Reeder, 2005 东北马鹿 Cervus xanthopygus Groves & Grubb, 2011
柴达木根田鼠 Microtus limnophilus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 塔里木马鹿 Cervus yarkandensis Groves & Grubb, 2011
山西林? Myodes shanseius Wilson & Reeder, 2005 缅甸斑羚 Naemorhedus evansi Groves & Grubb, 2011
康定绒鼠 Eothenomys hintoni Liu et al., 2012a 戈壁盘羊 Ovis darwini Groves & Grubb, 2011
川西绒鼠 Eothenomys tarquinius Liu et al., 2012a 西藏盘羊 Ovis hodgsoni Groves & Grubb, 2011
坎氏毛足鼠 Phodopus campbelli Wilson & Reeder, 2005 雅布赖盘羊 Ovis jubata Groves & Grubb, 2011
巴里坤跳鼠 Allactaga balikunica Wilson & Reeder, 2005 天山盘羊 Ovis karelini Groves & Grubb, 2011
喜马拉雅姬鼠 Apodemus pallipes Wilson & Reeder, 2005 帕米尔盘羊 Ovis polii Groves & Grubb, 2011
南洋鼠 Niviventer langbianis* Wilson & Reeder, 2005 秦岭羚牛 Budorcas bedfordi Groves & Grubb, 2011
西伯利亚旱獭 Marmota sibirica Wilson & Reeder, 2005 四川羚牛 Budorcas tibetanus Groves & Grubb, 2011
东黑冠长臂猿 Nomascus nasutus Wilson & Reeder, 2005 不丹羚牛 Budorcas whitei Groves & Grubb, 2011
喜马拉雅鬣羚 Capricornis thar Wilson & Reeder, 2005 拟刺毛鼠 Niviventer huang 陈鹏, 2012; NCBI, 2015
中国豪猪 Hystrix hodgsoni 潘清华等, 2007 台湾大鼯鼠 Petaurista grandis* Li et al., 2013
克什米尔鼩鼱 Sorex planiceps 潘清华等, 2007 海南大鼯鼠 Petaurista hainana* Li et al., 2013
海南白腹鼠 Niviventer lotipes* Li et al., 2008 云南大鼯鼠 Petaurista yunamensis* Li et al., 2013
窄脊江豚 Neophocaena asiaeorientalis Wang et al., 2008 利安得水麝鼩 Chimarrogale leander Yuan et al., 2013

Table 5

Species which were not listed in The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015"

中文名
Chinese name
种名
Species name
文献或依据
Source
中文名
Chinese name
种名
Species name
文献或依据
Source
普通鼩鼱 Sorex araneus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 黄氏海豚 Sousa huangi 专家意见 Experts’opinion
台湾长尾麝鼩 Crocidura tadae 专家意见 Experts’opinion 纹背松鼠 Callosciurus atrodorsalis 专家意见 Experts’opinion
泰国狐蝠 Pteropus lylei 专家意见 Experts’opinion 小林姬鼠 Apodemus sylvaticus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
马来大狐蝠 Pteropus vampyrus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 大黄鼠 Spermophilus major 专家意见 Experts’opinion
杏红菊头蝠 Rhinolophus rouxii 专家意见 Experts’opinion 赤颊黄鼠 Spermophilus erythrogenys 专家意见 Experts’opinion
角菊头蝠 Rhinolophus cornutus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 沙黄鼠 Citellus major 专家意见 Experts’opinion
浅褐菊头蝠 Rhinolophus subbadius 专家意见 Experts’opinion 草原旱獭 Marmota bobak 专家意见 Experts’opinion
三叶菊头蝠 Rhinolophus trifoliatus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 栗背大鼯鼠 Petaurista albiventer 专家意见 Experts’opinion
大长翼蝠 Miniopterus macrodens 专家意见 Experts’opinion 中国仓鼠 Cricetulus griseus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
双色蹄蝠 Hipposideros bicolor 专家意见 Experts’opinion 拟黝仓鼠 Cricetulus pseudogriseus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
台湾蹄蝠 Hipposideros terasensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion 黑线毛足鼠 Phodopus sungorus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
倭伏翼 Pipistrellus mimus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 郑氏沙鼠 Meriones chengi 专家意见 Experts’opinion
东亚蝙蝠 Vespertilio superans 专家意见 Experts’opinion 黑龙江鼢鼠 Myospalax epsilanus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
绒山蝠 Nyctalus velutinus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 丽江绒鼠 Eothenomys fidelis 专家意见 Experts’opinion
台湾阔耳蝠 Barbasoella formosanus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 劳氏高山? Altiocla roylei 专家意见 Experts’opinion
印度斑蝠 Scotomanes emarginatus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 库蒙高山? Alticola stracheyi 专家意见 Experts’opinion
南洋长翼蝠 Miniopterus oceanensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion 景东笔尾树鼠 Chiropodomys jingdongensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion
拟大管鼻蝠 Murina rubex 专家意见 Experts’opinion 克什米尔姬鼠 Apodemus wardi 专家意见 Experts’opinion
白臀叶猴 Pygathrix nemaeus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 斑胸鼠 Rattus yunnanensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion
白眉长臂猿 Hylobates hoolock 专家意见 Experts’opinion 中亚鼠 Rattus turkestanicus 专家意见 Experts’opinion
缺齿伶鼬 Mustela aistoodonnivalis 专家意见 Experts’opinion 王鼠 Maxomys rajah 专家意见 Experts’opinion
小艾鼬 Mustela amurensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion 短尾锋毛鼠 Maxomys musschenbroeki 专家意见 Experts’opinion
小印度獴 Herpestes auropunctatus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 爪哇小鼠 Mus vulcani 专家意见 Experts’opinion
渔猫 Prionailurus viverrinus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 托氏心颅跳鼠 Salpingotus thomasi 专家意见 Experts’opinion
鬣羚(苏门羚) Capricornis sumatraensis 专家意见 Experts’opinion 印度豪猪 Hystrix indica 专家意见 Experts’opinion
爪哇鼷鹿 Tragulus javanicus 专家意见 Experts’opinion 草兔 Lepus capensis Wilson & Reeder, 2005
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