生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 916-921.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016088

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热带森林不同演替阶段蚂蚁巢穴的分布特征及其影响因素

王邵军*(), 王红, 李霁航   

  1. 西南林业大学环境科学与工程学院, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-27 接受日期:2016-05-02 出版日期:2016-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 王邵军 E-mail:shaojunwang2009@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41461052)和国家林业局948项目(2015-4-39)

Distribution characteristics of ant mounds and correlating factors across different succession stages of tropical forests in Xishuangbanna

Shaojun Wang*(), Hong Wang, Jihang Li   

  1. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2016-03-27 Accepted:2016-05-02 Online:2016-08-20

为探明热带森林蚂蚁巢穴的分布特征及其影响因素, 采用样方法研究了西双版纳不同演替阶段热带森林定居巢穴蚂蚁的种类及其巢穴的密度、盖度和空间分布特征, 并分析了土壤理化环境与蚂蚁种类总数、巢穴密度及盖度的相关性。结果表明, 不同演替阶段热带森林蚂蚁种类总数、巢穴的密度及盖度大小顺序为: 小果野芭蕉 (Musa acuminata)群落>白背桐(Mallotus paniculatus)群落>思茅崖豆(Mellettia leptobotrya)群落, 并且热带森林的演替类型显著影响蚂蚁种类总数及巢穴密度, 而对巢穴盖度的影响未达到显著水平; 蚂蚁种类总数、巢穴密度与土壤总有机碳和水解氮显著正相关, 与土壤容重和土壤含水率显著负相关, 但所选择的土壤理化指标与巢穴盖度的相关性均未达到显著水平; 蚂蚁巢穴的空间分布呈随机分布格局。我们的数据表明, 不同演替阶段热带森林所形成的植被类型及土壤环境状况共同影响定居的蚂蚁种类总数与筑巢密度。

关键词: 蚂蚁巢穴, 蚂蚁种类, 空间分布, 土壤性质, 热带森林演替

In order to understand the distribution characteristics of ant mounds and influencing factors in tropical forests, we surveyed ant species, density, coverage and spatial distribution patterns of ant mounds in three successional stages of tropical forests in Xishuangbanna and analyzed correlations between these variables with soil physico-chemical properties. We found that (1) ant species richness, density and coverage of ant mounds in the three successional stages of tropical forests were ranked as: Musa acuminata community > Mallotus paniculatus community > Mellettia leptobotrya community; (2) successional forest type significantly impacted ant species richness and density of ant mounds but had no significant effects on ant mound coverage; (3) ant species richness and nest density was significantly and positively correlated with total soil organic carbon and soil hydrolysis nitrogen, but negatively correlated with soil bulk density and soil moisture content, besides, there were no significant correlations between soil physico-chemical properties and mound coverage. The spatial patterns of ant mounds indicated a random distribution. We conclude that the successional vegetation types and soil properties may exert a crucial effect on ant species richness and settlement density in secondary tropical forests of Xishuangbanna.

Key words: ant mounds, ant species, spatial distribution, soil properties, tropical forest succession

表1

西双版纳热带森林不同演替类型蚂蚁种类及其筑巢数量"

种类 Species 白背桐群落 (MP) 小果野芭蕉群落 (MA) 思茅崖豆群落 (ML)
卡泼林大头蚁 Pheidole capellini 28 15 31
中华大头蚁 Pheidole sinensis 7 39 0
宽结大头蚁 Pheidole noda 0 9 20
棒刺大头蚁 Pheidole spathifera 36 31 14
塞奇大头蚁 Pheidole sagei 0 16 11
印度大头蚁 Pheidole indica 6 8 0
罗伯特大头蚁 Pheidole roberti 17 0 10
沃森大头蚁 Pheidole watsoni 0 22 0
横纹齿猛蚁 Odontoponera transversa 38 28 14
黄足短猛蚁 Brachyponera luteipes 15 16 12
环纹大齿猛蚁 Odontomachus circulus 13 18 9
爪哇扁猛蚁 Ectomomyrmex javanus 10 11 0
郑氏扁猛蚁 Ectomomyrmex zhengi 0 0 9
双色曲颊猛蚁 Gnamptogenys bicolor 0 14 0
邻巨首蚁 Pheidologeton affinis 17 13 13
黄足立毛蚁 Paratrechina flavipes 11 10 11
亮立毛蚁 Paratrechina vividula 9 12 0
双针棱胸蚁 Pristomyrmex pungens 12 15 0
黑可可臭蚁 Dolichoderus thoracicus 0 11 12
光颚铺道蚁 Tetramorium insolens 9 16 0
毛发铺道蚁 Tetramorium ciliatum 0 12 14
汤普森多刺蚁 Polyrhachis thompsoni 0 9 0
四刺冠胸蚁 Lophomyrmex quadrispinosus 6 10 11
西氏拟毛蚁 Pseudolasius silvestrii 0 12 13
黑头酸臭蚁 Tapinoma melanocephalum 12 0 0
印度酸臭蚁 Tapinoma indicum 11 17 10
立毛举腹蚁 Crematogaster ferrarii 9 13 0
贝卡盘腹蚁 Aphaenogaster beccarii 11 0 0
东方小家蚁 Monomorium orientale 10 11 11
宽结小家蚁 Monomorium latinode 0 13 0
长足光结蚁 Anoplolepis gracilipes 13 0 0
狭唇细长蚁 Tetraponera attenuata 0 6 0
弯刺角腹蚁 Recurvidris recurvispinosa 10 9 9
罗氏棒切叶蚁 Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii 0 8 0

表2

热带森林演替类型对蚂蚁种类总数、巢穴密度及盖度影响的单因素方差分析"

自由度
df
均方
Mean square
F P
蚂蚁种类总数
Ant species richness
2 7,769.42 7.36 0.01
巢穴密度
Nest density
2 6,921.14 5.53 0.02
巢穴盖度
Nest coverage
2 5,844.36 2.17 1.38

表3

蚂蚁种类总数、巢穴密度及盖度与土壤环境因子的相关性"

土壤容重
Soil bulk density
(g/cm3)
土壤温度
Soil temperature
(℃)
土壤含水率
Soil moisture
(%)
pH 总有机碳
Total organic
carbon (g/kg)
全氮
Total nitrogen
(g/kg)
水解氮
Hydrolysis nitrogen (mg/kg)
蚂蚁种类总数
Ant species richness (Num.)
-0.896* -0.665 -0.966** -0.527 0.916** 0.811* 0.875*
巢穴密度
Nest density (ind./m2)
-0.878* -0.719 -0.952** -0.424 0.886* 0.635 0.875*
巢穴盖度
Nest coverage (%)
-0.457 -0.525 -0.568 -0.116 0.654 0.557 0.639

图1

不同演替阶段热带森林蚂蚁巢穴的密度(平均值±标准误)。不同字母表示群落之间差异显著(P < 0.05)。"

图2

不同演替阶段热带森林蚂蚁巢穴的盖度(平均值±标准误)。相同字母表示群落之间差异不显著(P > 0.05)。"

表4

热带森林不同演替阶段蚂蚁巢穴的空间分布特征"

方差
Variance
丛生指数
I
聚块指数
IW
平均拥挤度
m*
久野指数
CA
负二项分布
K
泊松分布检验
Poisson test
负二项分布检验
Binomial test
白背桐群落 MP 0.242 -0.136 0.424 0.816 -0.536 -2.403 P<0.05 p>0.05
小果野芭蕉群落 MA 0.435 -0.252 0.572 0.925 -0.364 -2.615 P<0.05 p>0.05
思茅崖豆群落 ML 0.357 -0.087 0.358 0.637 -0.382 -1.836 P<0.05 p>0.05
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