生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 746-751.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14180

所属专题: 野生动物的红外相机监测

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利用红外相机视频数据进行库姆塔格沙漠地区野骆驼集群行为研究的可行性

薛亚东, 刘芳, 张于光, 李迪强*()   

  1. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 国家林业局森林生态环境重点实验室, 北京 100091
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-27 接受日期:2014-11-26 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-12-11
  • 通讯作者: 李迪强
  • 基金资助:
    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2011003), 国家科技基础性工作专项(2006FY110800, 2012FY111700), 自然保护区生物标本资源共享子平台(2005DKA21404)

Grouping behavior of wild camel (Camelus ferus) referred from video data of camera trap in Kumtag Desert

Yadong Xue, Fang Liu, Yuguang Zhang, Diqiang Li*()   

  1. Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091
  • Received:2014-08-27 Accepted:2014-11-26 Online:2014-11-20 Published:2014-12-11
  • Contact: Li Diqiang

摘要:

野骆驼(Camelus ferus)生性机警, 且栖息于远离人迹、自然条件极端恶劣的荒漠、半荒漠地区, 其种群动态和行为生态学研究一直较为缺乏。本研究通过在库姆塔格沙漠地区进行不同季节的野外观测和连续水源地红外相机监测, 对野骆驼的集群行为进行了研究。2011-2013年, 在库姆塔格沙漠地区进行了8次野外调查, 共记录野骆驼64群, 个体430峰。非繁殖季节野骆驼集群大小平均为2.94±0.67峰; 而繁殖季节野骆驼集群大小平均为10.74±3.08峰。野外观测数据证明了野骆驼集群行为存在季节性差异, 倾向于冬季繁殖季节的集群。并于2012年10月至2013年9月期间, 在11个水源地设置11台红外相机, 共记录野骆驼281群745峰。与野外调查结果相比, 红外相机数据表明繁殖期间和非繁殖期间野骆驼集群大小没有显著差异(t = 0.322, P = 0.748)。水源地的地形因素、红外相机监测视角和监测时间的限制可能是造成这一差异的原因。但是两种方法的结果均表明野骆驼在阿尔金山北麓比西湖地区容易形成较大的集群; 同时, 繁殖季节野骆驼最大集群的规模要大于非繁殖季节。尽管利用红外相机进行动物集群行为研究存在一定的局限性, 但与传统基于野外调查的方法相比, 无论是经济上还是实用性方面, 利用红外相机都为我们开展动物行为学研究提供了新的手段。

关键词: Camelus ferus, 行为学, 种群, 季节差异, 水源地

Abstract:

There are great knowledge gaps concerning the population dynamics and behavioral ecology of wild camels. This study focused on grouping behaviors of camels (Camelus ferus) through the use of continuous camera trapping at 11 water source sites and eight field surveys conducted in the Kumtag Desert to evaluate seasonal variation in grouping behavior. We recorded 430 individual wild camels in a total of 64 groups. The largest group contained 71 individuals, the smallest group 1. The average group size was 10.74 during the breeding season, and 2.94 during the non-breeding season. Our data on seasonal grouping of camels, including average and maximum group size, supported the idea that wild camels live in open fission fusion groups, which tend to concentrate during the winter rutting season. At these 11 water source sites, 281 groups were recorded over the course of one year. Though no difference in average group size was detected between seasons in the camera trap data, both camera trap and field survey data supported the hypothesis that maximum group size was larger in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season. Group size was larger on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains than at Xihu wetland. Topography of the water source sites, the camera angle view, and the monitoring duration of cameras could all lead to an underestimate of wild camel group size. Even considering the limitations of our study, camera traps provide a new method and insights compared with traditional field surveys, and they are more economical and practical as well.

Key words: Camelus ferus, behavior, population, seasonal variation, water source sites