生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 596-607.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14005

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秦岭两栖、爬行动物物种多样性海拔分布格局及其解释

郑智, 龚大洁*(), 孙呈祥, 李晓军, 李万江   

  1. 西北师范大学生命科学学院, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-07 接受日期:2014-08-13 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 龚大洁
  • 基金资助:
    秦岭地区野生动物物种资源评估项目(2012-12)

Elevational pattern of amphibian and reptile diversity in Qinling Range and explanation

Zhi Zheng, Dajie Gong*(), Chengxiang Sun, Xiaojun Li, Wanjiang Li   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Northwestern Normal University, Lanzhou 730070
  • Received:2014-01-07 Accepted:2014-08-13 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-10-09
  • Contact: Gong Dajie

摘要:

物种多样性和种域宽度沿环境梯度的分布格局及其成因机制一直是生物地理学和生态学讨论的重要议题。本研究采用多元回归模型和方差分离的方法判断面积、水分和能量、边界限制对秦岭两栖、爬行动物及其不同区系成分的物种丰富度海拔梯度分布格局的影响。结果表明, 秦岭两栖爬行动物及其不同区系成分的物种丰富度均呈单峰分布格局, 但峰值分布的海拔段有所差异。形成这种格局是各种因素相互作用的结果, 3种假设的独立解释力较低。水分能量动态假设对两栖、爬行动物物种的丰富度格局有很强的解释能力, 但水分和能量的解释力中有很大一部分属于边界限制、面积的协同作用, 在解释两栖动物的海拔分布格局时, 边界限制与水分和能量之间存在较强的共线性, 而在解释爬行动物的海拔分布格局时, 面积与水分和能量之间存在较强的共线性。同时, 本研究采用Stevens法和逐种法对Rapoport法则进行了验证。结果表明, 爬行动物物种种域的海拔梯度格局基本上支持Rapoport法则, 两栖动物很难判断是否支持Rapoport法则。

关键词: 物种丰富度, 气候, 中域效应, 面积, 海拔梯度格局, Rapoport法则, 秦岭

Abstract:

Spatial patterns of species diversity and range size along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms have long been controversial issues in biogeography and ecology. The species-area relationship, water-energy dynamic hypothesis and mid-domain effect were used here to explain the elevational patterns of amphibian and reptile species richness and their different faunal components in China’s Qinling Range using multivariate regression models and the variance partitioning algorithm. Our results showed unimodal patterns for the elevational distributions of amphibians, reptiles and their faunal components, but the peaks of the patterns differed among groups. The underlying mechanisms shaping the patterns revealed intensive interactions, while the independent explanatory strengths of the three proposed hypotheses (exclude reptile oriental realm) were relatively weak. The water-energy dynamic hypothesis was the most parsimonious explanation of the observed patterns. The majority of water-energy dynamic explanation belonged to interaction of three hypotheses. The interaction between mid-domain effect and water-energy dynamics was larger for amphibians and that between species-area relationship and water-energy dynamic hypothesis was larger for reptiles. The Steven’s and cross-species methods were used to examine whether species-specific elevational range sizes of amphibians, reptiles and their different faunal components are applicable to Rapoport’s rule. The results showed that reptile range sizes supported Rapoport’s rule at the various elevational gradients, while amphibian range sizes were difficult to support Rapoport’s rule.

Key words: species richness, climate, mid-domain effect, area, elevational gradient pattern, Rapoport’s rule, Qinling Range