生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (3): 214-221.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2001033

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

神农架保护区大步甲和蜗步甲属生境选择与物种多样性研究

于晓东,周红章,罗天宏   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2001-03-09 修回日期:2001-05-18 出版日期:2001-08-20 发布日期:2001-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 周红章

Habitat distribution and species diversity of Carabus and Cychrus in She nnongjia Nature Reserve, Hubei Province

YU Xiao-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang , LUO Tian-Hong   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100080
  • Received:2001-03-09 Revised:2001-05-18 Online:2001-08-20 Published:2001-08-20
  • Contact: YU XiaoDong

摘要: 针对神农架保护区12个代表地点的6种生境,利用巴氏罐诱法研究大步甲属(Carabus) 和蜗步甲属(Cychrus)的物种和数量分布。研究发现:(1)本地区有大步甲7种,蜗步甲2种,其中Cy.bispinosus shennongding、C.ohshimaianus、C.blumenthaliellus C.yokoae是本地的常见种,分布区域广,占个体总数的88.2%。(2)物种分布与海拔高度 密切相关,常见种的垂直分布范围比较宽,海拔区间大于1000 m;其他种分布相对较窄, 垂直区间小于500 m。从物种分布特点看,在海拔1500~2000 m 的范围内种类最多,在海拔 2000~2500 m的范围内个体数量最多;在海拔500~1000 m范围内种类和数量均相对较少。 (3)人为或自然干扰程度影响物种的种类组成和个体数量分布。剧烈干扰减少物种种类和 数量;在中等干扰的情况下,物种种类较多;在轻度干扰的情况下,物种个体数量较多;在几乎没有干扰的情况下,物种的种类和数量也呈下降趋势。(4)生境类型影响物种的数量 分布。C.blumenthaliellus的个体数量在草甸内远高于其他生境,C.yokoae在阔叶林内数 量显著高于草甸,C.ohshimaianus在针叶林的数量明显高于混交林和草甸,Cy.bispinosus shennongding也倾向分布在混交林和草甸内。如果以属为单元进行比较,大步甲属和蜗步 甲属在不同生境内的数量变化没有达到显著性差异,但大步甲属在混交林内数量低于其他生 境,蜗步甲属在混交林和草甸内有数量优势。(5)比较物种多样性指数值,溪边灌丛最高 ,针叶林最低;均匀度指数值阔叶林最高,针叶林最低。从物种丰富度看,混交林和溪边灌 丛最高,其次为针叶林。本研究结果表明,海拔和干扰程度决定了大步甲和蜗步甲物种种类 分布,生境影响数量分布;为了保护这两属的物种多样性,要保护不同类型的特殊生境,尽 量保持生境的多样化,尽力控制人为干扰,减缓自然干扰,只有这样才会丰富该地区的物种 多样性。

关键词: 真鲷, 同工酶, 遗传变异, 水平淀粉凝胶电泳

Abstract: This study was conducted in Shennongjia Nature Reserve in Hubei Province , China. Twelve plots within six different habitats were investigated and the method of pitfall traps was employed to compare the influence of elevation , disturbance and habitat difference on the distribution of Carabus and Cychrus . Seven species of Carabus and two of Cychrus were recorded , of which four species , C.ohshimaianus , C. blumenthaliellus , C. yokoae , and Cy. bispinosus shennongding , dominated the trap catches and accounted for 88.2 %of the total collected specimens. Elevation and disturbance influenced species distribution. Dominant species could be trapped in an interval of over 1000 m while the other species were trapped only in an interval of about 500 m. Species were richest between 1500 to 2000 m above sealevel , and individuals were most abundant between 2000 to 2500 m. Fewer species and fewer individuals were captured between 500 to 1000 m. Severe disturbance from intensive humanand natural activity strongly limited species distributions and their abundance. The highest species number was observed in habitats with a moderate degree of disturbance , and the highest abundance was found where disturbance existed in a much lower degree. Habitats in very stable and undisturbed ecosystems did not show the highest number of species and abundance. Analysis showed significant habitat preferences for each species : C. blumenthaliellus was more abundant in meadows , C. yokoae in broad-leaved forest , and C. ohshimaianus in mixed forest . Considering genus as the unit in analysis (i. e. , Carabus and Cychrus) abundance did not show significant difference at the 0.05 level among different habitats , but Carabus showed a lower abundance in mixed forests and Cychrus was more abundant in mixed forests and in meadows. Species diversity ( H′value) was highest in shrubs near rivers and lowest in coniferous forest . Broad-leaved forest showed the highest evenness value and coniferous forest the lowest , while the highest species richness was observed in mixed forest and shrubs near rivers and the lowest in broad-leaved forest and meadows. The results indicate that elevation and disturbance determine the species distribution of Carabus and Cychrus and habitat differences st rongly modify numbers of each species. For species diversity protection , it is very important to maintain environmental heterogeneity and reduce the magnitude of disturbance from human and natural activity in Shennongjia

Key words: red seabream (Pagrus major), isozyme, genetic variation, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis