生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (1): 66-75.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10171

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态系统受威胁等级的评估标准和方法

陈国科, 马克平*   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-26 修回日期:2011-11-27 出版日期:2012-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 马克平 E-mail:kpma@ibcas.ac.cn

Criteria and methods for assessing the threat status of ecosystem

Guoke Chen, Keping Ma*   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2011-09-26 Revised:2011-11-27 Online:2012-01-20
  • Contact: Keping Ma E-mail:kpma@ibcas.ac.cn

生态系统受威胁等级评估是认识生物多样性丧失的重要手段。在2008年的第四次世界自然保护大会上, 国际自然保护联盟(IUCN)成立专门工作组, 着手建立类似于物种灭绝风险的定量评估方法, 对生态系统受威胁等级进行评估。最终的目标是在局地、区域和全球尺度上确定生态系统的受威胁等级, 建立生态系统红色名录。在制定生物多样性保护策略时, 生态系统红色名录与物种红色名录可作为互补。目前, 生态系统受威胁等级评估方案的评估依据包括4类: 生态系统分布或生态系统功能短期衰退; 生态系统分布或生态系统功能长期衰退; 生态系统当前的分布狭窄、同时生态系统分布或生态系统功能衰退; 生态系统当前的分布极狭窄。应用Rodríguez等(2011)建立的评估标准, 基于文献记载的中国辽河三角洲4个生态系统1988年和2006年的面积, 我们详细介绍了生态系统受威胁等级的评估过程。目前的评估方法面临挑战, 生态系统分布范围和占有面积的估计应基于合理的空间尺度, 同时还需建立合理的方法定量描述生态系统功能的变化。生态系统受威胁等级评估方案将提交2012年召开的世界自然保护大会讨论。

Assessing the threat status of ecosystems is a useful tool for understanding biodiversity loss on Earth. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established a working group at the fourth World Conservation Congress to develop quantitative categories and criteria for assessing ecosystem threat status. These categories and criteria were similar to those used to assess extinction risk for species. This working group strove to establish red lists of ecosystems by applying these criteria to ecosystems at local, regional, and global scales. Ecosystem red lists were designed to be complementary to species red lists for use in creating biodiversity conservation policies. The criteria used for assessment were grouped into four classes: short-term decline in distribution or ecological function, historical declines in distribution or ecological function, small current distribution with decline in distribution or ecological function, or very restricted current distribution. In this paper, we illustrate the use of these criteria for assessing ecosystem threat status; we used literature data on the areas of occupancy for four ecosystems in China’s Liaohe Delta in 1988 and 2006 to evaluate the threat status of these four ecosystems. We also discuss challenges that lie ahead for this method of assessment. Measures of ecosystem distribution and area of occupancy should be based on proper spatial scales. Appropriate quantitative methods are also needed to measure changes in ecosystem function. The final proposed assessment protocol will be presented for further discussion at the 2012 World Conservation Congress.

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