生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (6): 725-734.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10103

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

铜尾矿复垦地与外围林地土壤动物群落结构

朱永恒1, 2*, 张小会1, 2, 沈非1, 2, 陆林1   

  1. 1安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院, 芜湖 241003
    2安徽自然灾害过程与防控研究省级实验室, 芜湖 241003
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-19 修回日期:2012-08-17 出版日期:2012-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱永恒 E-mail:yhzhu876@mail.ahnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:

    尾矿废弃地自然演替过程中土壤动物迁居研究——以铜陵市尾矿库为例

Community structures of soil fauna in reclaimed copper mine tailings and suburb forest land

Yongheng Zhu1, 2*, Xiaohui Zhang1, 2, Fei Shen1, 2, Lin Lu1   

  1. 1College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003

    2Anhui Key Laboratory of Natural Disasters Process and Prevention, Wuhu 241003
  • Received:2012-04-19 Revised:2012-08-17 Online:2012-11-20
  • Contact: Yongheng Zhu E-mail:yhzhu876@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

土壤动物群落结构及其多样性对于尾矿地的生态重建具有重要意义。为了解铜尾矿复垦地土壤动物群落多样性及其结构特征, 作者选择铜陵市林冲尾矿复垦地(reclamated copper-mine-tailings)及其外围林地(suburb forest land), 于2011年春季设置4条样带13个样方, 分4层(0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm)进行土壤动物取样。结果表明, 复垦地优势类群为蜱螨目、弹尾目和线虫纲, 常见类群为蚁科、鞘翅目幼虫、寡毛纲、双翅目幼虫和双尾目等; 而外围林地优势类群为弹尾目和蜱螨目, 常见类群为线虫纲和寡毛纲等。复垦地土壤动物个体总数、类群数和中小型土壤动物密度皆明显低于外围林地, 而大型土壤动物密度无显著差异。复垦地土壤动物群落Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)较外围林地大, 而密度–类群多样性指数偏小。复垦地土壤动物群落的表聚现象更明显, 尤其表现在土壤剖面第一层和其他层次之间的差异性。RDA排序分析表明, 不同生境中大型、中小型干生和湿生土壤动物类群对不同环境因子的响应有区别, 复垦地蚁科和鞘翅目成虫个体数随Cu含量增加而增加, 弹尾目和蜱螨目随Cu含量增加而减少, 线虫纲变化不明显。复垦地土壤动物恢复的关键是降低Cu含量及改善小生境条件。

Soil fauna were very important for the ecological reconstruction of mine tailings. We investigated community characteristics of soil fauna at two sites, including reclamated copper-mine-tailings (RCMT) and suburb forest land of reclamated copper-mine-tailings (SFL) in Tongling City to test and illustrate the value of soil fauna for mitigating the impacts of heavy metal pollution. In the spring of 2011, we established four transects (150 m) at the two sites and collected soil samples of macro-, meso- and micro- soil fauna from four depths (0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm) at 13 30 cm× 30 cm sampling quadrats. Our results showed that at RCMT, the Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups; the Formicidae, Coleoptera larvae, Oligochaeta, Diptera larvae and Diplura were frequent groups; and the additional 16 groups were less commonly encountered. While at SFL the Collembola and Acarina were dominant groups and the Nematoda and Oligochaeta were frequent groups. Overall abundance of soil fauna at RCMT were significantly less than that of SFL (F=20.65, P<0.01), and number of faunal groups were lower at RCMT (F=5.88, P<0.05). We did not find a significant difference between the density of macro-soil fauna at RCMT and SFL, but found that the density of meso- and micro- soil fauna at RCMT was significantly lower than that of SFL (F=29.99, P<0.01). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) at RCMT was higher than that of SFL (F=24.06, P<0.01), but DG diversity index was lower at RCMT compared to SFL (F=4.75, P<0.05). There was evident surface aggregation of soil fauna at RCMT, especially in the differences between the first layer and the other layers of the soil profile (Find.=17.80, Fgro.=33.33, P<0.01). Redundancy analysis indicated that soil macro-, dry-type, wet-type meso- and micro-fauna at different habitats were differentially affected by various environmental factors. At reclaimed land with higher copper concentrations, we found a higher greater number of Formicidae and Coleoptera and lower numbers of Collembola and Acarina adults. Our study suggests that the key of soil fauna recovery at reclaimed lands is to reduce the content of Cu and improve the microhabitat conditions.

中图分类号: 

  • Q958.1

[1] 林杰, 徐文轩, 杨维康, 夏参军, 刘伟. (2012) 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区蒙古野驴生境适宜性评价. 生物多样性, 20(4): 411-419.
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