生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (3): 270-279.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10046

所属专题: 传粉生物学:理论探讨与初步实践

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

兰科植物欺骗性传粉

任宗昕1,2, 王红1*, 罗毅波3   

  1. 1中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性和生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
    2中国西南野生生物种质资源库, 昆明 650201
    3中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-08 修回日期:2012-04-09 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-09
  • 通讯作者: 王红

Deceptive pollination of orchids

Zongxin Ren1,2, Hong Wang1*, Yibo Luo3   

  1. 1Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201

    2Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201

    3State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2012-02-08 Revised:2012-04-09 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-09
  • Contact: Hong Wang

摘要: 植物与传粉动物的互利关系在生态系统中非常普遍。然而, 有许多植物不为传粉者提供任何报酬, 而是利用各种欺骗方式诱骗昆虫拜访, 从而实现传粉, 即欺骗性传粉。兰科是被子植物大科之一, 其高度特化的繁殖器官和适应于昆虫传粉的精巧结构令人称奇。进化论创始人达尔文描述了许多兰花与昆虫精巧的传粉系统, 但他忽视了欺骗性传粉的存在。事实上, 近1/3的兰科植物都依赖于欺骗性传粉。欺骗性传粉可能是导致兰科植物多样性的重要原因之一。兰花利用或操作昆虫觅食、交配、产卵和栖息等行为, 演化出各种各样的欺骗性传粉机制, 常见的类型包括泛化的食源性欺骗、Batesian拟态、性欺骗、产卵地拟态和栖息地拟态。花的颜色、形态和气味在欺骗性传粉的成功实现中起到了重要作用。欺骗性兰花与传粉昆虫之间的演化可能是不同步的, 兰花追踪昆虫的行为信号而发生分化, 然而欺骗性传粉可能对昆虫造成一定的伤害, 从而对昆虫也施加选择压力。由于昆虫的学习行为, 欺骗性的兰花一般具有低的昆虫拜访率和结实率, 其繁殖成功率受各种因素的影响。欺骗性加剧了兰花对传粉昆虫的依赖, 使其具有更高的灭绝风险, 传粉生物学的研究能为兰科植物的有效保护提供指导。在欺骗性传粉系统中, 有报酬的伴生植物、拟态模型和其他拟态信号提供者对传粉成功有重要影响。因此, 研究欺骗性传粉兰花、传粉昆虫和相关的生物和生态因子的网状进化关系具有重要理论和实践意义。

Abstract: Mutualism, or a mutually beneficial interaction between two organisms, are ubiquitous in ecological systems. However, some “empty flowers”, which offer pollinators no any kinds of rewards, design different strategies to attract pollinators without providing rewards to the pollinators. These pollination mechanisms are called deceptive pollination. The family Orchidaceae, representing one of the largest groups in angiosperms, is distinguished by high floral diversity and intricate adaptations to pollinators. Darwin described and identified most of the functional floral morphology and biomechanics in orchid pollination. However, he never recognized that many of the flowers that he examined lacked food rewards for pollinators. Floral evolution in the Orchidaceae appears to be dominated by modes of deceptive pollination, and more than one third of orchid species are thought to be pollinated by deceit. Deceptive pollination is thought to be one of key roles which has lead to relatively high species diversity within the Orchidaceae. Deceptive orchids frequently exploit the food foraging, sexual, oviposition and sleep/warmth behaviors of insects. The most common deception mechanisms include generalized food deception, Batesian floral mimicry, sexual deception, brood-site imitation and shelter imitation. Additionally, floral color, morphology and fragrance play key roles to cheat target pollinators. Relationships between deceptive orchids and their pollinators possibly involve asynchronous evolution; therefore orchids track the diversification of their pollinators. However, deception has negative impacts on the pollinators, which may exert selection on the pollinators. Because duped pollinators tend to avoid rewardless flowers, deceptive orchids suffer low visitation rates and fruit set, various environment factors can affect the reproductive success of these orchids. Deceptive orchids depend largely on insect pollinators for reproduction, and the proclivity of these species to use deceptive pollination strategies puts many of these species at a relatively higher rate of extinction. Therefore, pollination biology studies are needed to provide a scientific basis for proper conservation of orchids. At the community level, co-occurring mimic, non-mimic, and mimic signal providing plant species affect the reproductive fitness of orchids. Therefore, it is necessary to further study the co-evolution webs of deceptive orchids and pollinators along with other related biological and ecological factors.