生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 474-484.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019290

• 研究报告: 动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

唐鱼养殖种群与广州附近4个野生种群的遗传关系

李潮1,金锦锦1,罗锦桢1,2,王春晖1,3,王俊杰1,赵俊1,*()   

  1. 1 广东省水产健康安全养殖重点实验室, 广东省水产优质环保养殖工程技术研究中心,广州市亚热带生物多样性与环境生物监测重点实验室, 华南师范大学生命科学学院, 广州 510631
    2 佛山南海狮山石门高级中学, 广东佛山 528225
    3 广州金域医学检验中心有限公司, 广州 510330
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-17 接受日期:2019-12-24 出版日期:2020-04-20 发布日期:2020-06-15
  • 通讯作者: 赵俊
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31372178);国家自然科学基金(31772430);国家科技基础平台项目(2005DKA21402);中国-东盟海上合作基金(CAMC-2018F);国家留学基金(201906750010);广东省高校青年优秀科研人才国际培养计划(2018010162);华南师范大学拔尖研究生联合培养项目

Genetic relationships of hatchery populations and wild populations of Tanichthys albonubes near Guangzhou

Chao Li1,Jinjin Jin1,Jinzhen Luo1,2,Chunhui Wang1,3,Junjie Wang1,Jun Zhao1,*()   

  1. 1 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Environmentally-friendly Aquaculture, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631
    2 Foshan Nanhai Shimen Senior High School, Foshan, Guangdong 528225
    3 Guangzhou Kingmed Center for Clinical Laboratory, Guangzhou 510330
  • Received:2019-09-17 Accepted:2019-12-24 Online:2020-04-20 Published:2020-06-15
  • Contact: Jun Zhao

摘要:

唐鱼(Tanichthys albonubes)是为数不多的几种原产中国的世界性观赏鱼类之一。自2003年以来, 多个唐鱼野生种群相继被发现, 其濒危状态和等级由野外灭绝降为极危。为研究唐鱼养殖种群与广州附近野生种群之间的遗传关系, 本文分析了唐鱼3个代表性养殖种群和4个野生种群, 共计186个样本的Cyt b基因、2个核基因(ENC1RAG1)以及13个微卫星位点数据。基于K2P模型的遗传距离结果显示, 唐鱼野生种群间的遗传距离在0.005-0.015之间, 养殖种群间的遗传距离为0.001-0.009。系统发育分析表明, 唐鱼养殖种群包含4个单倍型谱系分支, 其中2个分别与广州附近2个野生种群聚在一起, 另外2个分别独立成支。单倍型网络亲缘关系分析显示, 清远种群只有1个单倍型且与芳村养殖种群共享, 芳村养殖种群拥有最多的单倍型。基于微卫星数据的STRUCTURE分析表明, 所有种群最佳分簇数为2, 清远种群与养殖种群聚为一簇, 良口和石门种群聚为另一簇。主成分分析结果显示, 养殖种群高度重叠并能与野生种群分开, 清远种群与养殖种群存在部分重叠。利用IMa3的基因流分析表明, 存在清远种群至芳村养殖种群的单向基因流。综合本文结果, 作者认为唐鱼养殖种群应起源于广州附近多个野生种群。清远种群来源于养殖种群中的芳村养殖种群。建议在未来唐鱼的保护策略中, 应禁止不规范的放流活动并且禁止将不同野生种群补充至养殖种群, 同时加强唐鱼养殖种群和野生种群的遗传资源管理和持续监测。

关键词: Tanichthys albonubes, 线粒体基因, 核基因, 微卫星, 基因流

Abstract:

Tanichthys albonubes is a popular ornamental fish species which had been believed to be extinct in the wild in China. Since 2003, many wild populations have been found on Hainan and Guangxi provinces and therefore the conversation status has been modified to be Critically Endangered. We investigated the genetic relationships of hatchery populations of T. albonubes to their wild populations near Guangzhou. To study these genetic relationships, multilocus data (one mitochondrial gene, two nuclear genes and 13 microsatellite loci) from 186 individuals from three hatchery populations and four wild populations around the city of Guangzhou were analyzed. The K2P genetic distances based on the Cyt b gene among wild populations and hatchery populations of T. albonubes ranged from 0.005 to 0.015, and from 0.001 to 0.009, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships showed hatchery population Fangcun contained four mitochondrial clades, two of which grouped with haplotypes from two wild populations near Guangzhou while the remaining clustered separately. The haplotype networks revealed that the Qingyuan population consisted of one shared haplotype with population Fangcun, which had greater haplotype diversity than all other populations. STRUCTURE analyses from the hatchery and wild populations suggested these populations could be grouped into two clusters (K = 2), one of which was formed by a hatchery population and a Qingyuan population while the other was formed by two wild populations. Principal component analysis showed that hatchery populations and Qingyuan populations overlapped with some degree of genetic variation with these cultured stocks. Directional gene flow was detected from population Qingyuan to population Fangcun using IMa3 programme. Based on these findings, we conclude that population Fangcun originated from multiple wild populations near Guangzhou and subsequently served as the ancestor of cultured populations in Singapore and Canada. We propose that irregular releases of cultured stocks of T. albonubes should be forbidden and captive hatchery using different wild populations should be prevented. At the same time, genetic resources management and sustained monitoring of hatchery and wild populations of T. albonubes should be reinforced in the future.

Key words: Tanichthys albonubes, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear gene, microsatellite, gene flow