生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 932-942.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019026

• 中国雪豹调查研究与保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国雪豹的威胁与保护现状

李小雨1#, 肖凌云1#, 梁旭昶2, 程琛1, 冯琛3, 赵翔3, 刘炎林4, 卞晓星2, 何兵5, 张常智5, Justine Shanti Alexander6, 邢睿7, 黄亚慧7, 阿旺久美8, 谢然尼玛9, 宋大昭4, 黄巧雯4, 扎西桑俄10, 彭奎11, 尹杭12, 连新明13, 杨欣14, 李晟1, 施小刚15, 杨创明16, 吕植1, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    2 国际野生生物保护学会, 北京 100101
    3 山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
    4 中国猫科动物保护联盟, 北京 101121
    5 世界自然基金会, 北京 100037
    6 Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle WA 98103, USA
    7 荒野新疆, 乌鲁木齐 830000
    8 原上草自然保护中心, 西宁 810012
    9 治多县索加乡人民政府, 青海玉树 815400
    10 年保玉则生态环境保护协会, 青海果洛 624700
    11 永续全球环境研究所, 北京 100600
    12 雪境生态宣传教育与研究中心, 西宁 810007
    13 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008
    14 四川省绿色江河环境保护促进会, 成都 610041
    15 四川卧龙国家级自然保护区, 四川汶川 623006
    16 四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区, 四川甘孜 626000
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-31 接受日期:2019-08-31 出版日期:2019-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 吕植 E-mail:luzhi@pku.edu.cn

Ongoing threats and the current status of snow leopard conservation in China

Xiaoyu Li1#, Lingyun Xiao1#, Xuchang Liang2, Chen Cheng1, Chen Feng3, Xiang Zhao3, Yanlin Liu4, Xiaoxing Bian2, Bing He5, Changzhi Zhang5, Justine Shanti Alexander6, Rui Xing7, Yahui Huang7, Awangjiumei 8, Xierannima 9, Dazhao Song4, Qiaowen Huang4, 10, Kui Peng11, Hang Yin12, Xinming Lian13, Xin Yang14, Sheng Li1, Xiaogang Shi15, Chuangming Yang16, Zhi Lü1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Wildlife Conservation Society, Beijing 100101
    3 Shan Shui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    4 Chinese Felid Conversation Alliance, Beijing 101121
    5 World Wide Fund for Nature, Beijing 100037
    6 Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle WA 98103, USA
    7 Wild Xinjiang, Urumqi 830000
    8 Plateau Nature Conservancy, Xining 810012
    9 People’s Government of Suojia Township, Zhiduo County, Yushu, Qinghai 815400
    10 Nyanpo Yutse Conservation Association, Golog, Qinghai 624700
    11 Global Environmental Institute, Beijing 100600
    12 Gangri Neichog Research and Conservation Center, Xining 810007
    13 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    14 Greenriver Environmental Protection Association of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610041
    15 Wolong National Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, Sichuan 623006
    16 Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Garzê, Sichuan 626000
  • Received:2019-01-31 Accepted:2019-08-31 Online:2019-09-20
  • Contact: Lü Zhi E-mail:luzhi@pku.edu.cn

大部分保护机构只有能力在特定种群层面上保护大型食肉动物, 而物种的灭绝风险却是在全球尺度进行评估的。因此, 要填补这一尺度断层, 多机构的工作与意见汇总非常必要。本研究综合了文献和18家中国雪豹(Panthera uncia)研究与保护机构共24位一线工作人员提供的信息, 经过两次集体讨论和填写评分表格的方式, 识别出21种威胁因素, 在全国层面和青海、西藏、新疆、四川和甘肃5个主要雪豹分布省区层面对威胁进行了排序, 并汇总了各保护机构实施的17项保护行动, 以及各项行动所应对的威胁。全国评分前三的威胁依次是基层保护部门能力不足(9.5分)、气候变化(8.0分)、当地社区保护动力不足(6.8分), 不同省区的威胁排序则体现出很大差异性。其中, 目前仍没有任何行动措施应对气候变化。虽然已有一些保护行动来应对基层保护能力不足和当地社区保护动力不足的问题, 如保护区能力建设、开展社区监测等, 但行动的覆盖尺度仍远远不够。

关键词: 雪豹, 中国, 威胁评估, 专家意见, 保护行动

When working with widespread large carnivores, most conservation organizations can only perform direct conservation actions for a specific population, but the extinction risk of a species is evaluated at a global scale. Here, we aim to bridge this impact gap by assessing the work and opinions from many organizations. We combines knowledge from scientific literature with the observations of 24 front-line staff working at 18 Chinese snow leopard research and conservation organizations. Through attending two group-meetings and by filling in threat-scoring spreadsheets, we identified 21 threats and ranked them at both the national and provincial levels. The five main snow leopard distribution provinces are Qinghai, Tibet, Xinjiang, Sichuan and Gansu. Also, we analyzed 17 conservation actions conducted by these conservation organizations, as well as the threats these actions attempted to address. The top three threats in China are the insufficient capacity of local conservation departments (9.5 points), climate change (8.0 points), and the lack of conservation incentive among local communities (6.8 points), although large differences exist between provinces. There is currently no action being taken in response to climate change. Although some conservation actions have addressed the insufficient capacity of local conservation departments and the lack of conservation awareness in local communities, such as by building up the capacity of conservation areas and monitoring by communities, respectively, the spatial coverage of these actions is still far from sufficient.

Key words: snow leopard, China, threat assessment, expert opinion, conservation actions

表1

中国雪豹威胁列表"

威胁分类
Category of threat
威胁名称
Threat
编号
No.
参考文献
Reference
对雪豹的直接猎杀
或抓捕
Direct killing or
capture of snow leopards
报复性猎杀
In retribution for livestock depredation (RLD)
1.1 Oli et al, 1994; Xu et al, 2008; Li et al, 2013; Alexander et al, 2015; Chen et al, 2016; Wild Xinjiang
非法贸易导致的偷猎
Poaching for illegal trade (PIT)
1.2 Zhang, 1985; Schaller et al, 1988; Liu, 1993; EIA, 2008, 2012; Peng, 2009; Ma, 2012; Li & Lü, 2014; Maheshwari & Niraj, 2018
动物园和博物馆的活体收集
Zoo and museum collection of live animals (ZMC)
1.3 Ma, 2012; Shan Shui Conservation Center
下毒、下套等导致的误杀
Secondary poisoning and trapping (SPT)
1.4 Li et al, 2013; Shan Shui Conservation Center
雪豹疾病 Diseases of snow leopards (DSL) 1.5 Fix et al, 1989; Silinski et al, 2003; An, 2016; Ostrowski & Gilbert, 2016; Shan Shui Conservation Center
栖息地和猎物相关
威胁
Threat about habitats and preys
栖息地退化 Habitat degradation (HD) 2.1 Brown, 2008; Harris, 2010; Wang et al, 2015
栖息地破碎化 Habitat fragmentation (HF) 2.2 World Wide Fund for Nature; Xu et al, 2008; Li, 2012; Wild Xinjiang
盗猎和误杀导致的猎物种群减少
Prey reduction due to poaching and mistaken killing (PRPMK)
2.3 Schaller et al, 1988; Shan Shui Conservation Center
家畜竞争导致的猎物种群减少
Prey reduction due to competition with livestock (PRCL)
2.4 Mishra et al, 2004; Suryawanshi et al, 2010; Xiao, 2017; Wild Xinjiang
猎物疾病 Diseases of prey (DP) 2.5 Fedosenko & Blank, 2001; Dagleish et al, 2007; Wang et al, 2009; Bao et al, 2011; Ostrowski et al, 2011; Ostrowski & Gilbert, 2016; Wild Xinjiang
政策和认知相关
威胁
Threat about policy
and cognition
普遍认知缺乏导致的政策不当
Improper policy due to lack of cognition (IP)
3.1 Li et al, 2017
政策实施不力
Ineffective implementation of policies (IIP)
3.2 Mishra et al, 2003; Chen et al, 2016; Shan Shui Conservation Center
缺乏跨省(境)合作
Lack of trans-boundary cooperation (LTC)
3.3 -
基层保护部门能力不足
Insufficient capacity of local conservation departments (ICLCD)
3.4 -
当地社区保护动力不足
Lack of conservation incentive among local communities (LCILC)
3.5 -
间接威胁
Indirect threat
气候变化 Climate change (CC) 4.1 IPCC, 2007; Klein et al, 2007; Xue et al, 2009; Vince, 2010; Yu et al, 2010; Forrest et al, 2012; Lovari et al, 2013; Yao et al, 2013; Luo et al, 2015; Aryal et al, 2016; Lehnert et al, 2016; Li et al, 2016; Yang et al, 2018
人口增长和贫困
Human population growth and poverty (HPGP)
4.2 Mishra et al, 2001, 2003; Adams et al, 2004; McShane & Wells, 2004
流浪狗袭击雪豹及其猎物
Stray dogs attack snow leopards and their prey (SDA)
4.3 Wandeler et al, 1993; Butler et al, 2004; Mingyu Liu (Peking University)
虫草/药草采挖造成的干扰
Interference caused by cordyceps/herb collection (ICCC)
4.4 Shan Shui Conservation Center
道路建设与旅游开发项目
Road construction and tourism development projects (RCTD)
4.5 Wild Xinjiang; Wolong National Nature Reserve
矿产与水电开发
Mineral exploration and hydropower development (MEHD)
4.6 Wingard & Zahler, 2006; Baker et al, 2010; Jackson et al, 2013

图1

全国及各省区雪豹所面临威胁的排序。RLD: 报复性猎杀; PIT: 非法贸易导致的偷猎; ZMC: 动物园和博物馆的活体收集; SPT: 下毒、下套等导致的误杀; DSL: 雪豹疾病; HD: 栖息地退化; HF: 栖息地破碎化; PRPMK: 盗猎和误杀导致的猎物种群减少; PRCL: 家畜竞争导致的猎物种群减少; DP: 猎物疾病; IP: 普遍认知缺乏导致的政策不当; IIP: 政策实施不力; LTC: 缺乏跨省(境)合作; ICLCD: 基层保护部门能力不足; LCILC: 当地社区保护动力不足; CC: 气候变化; HPGP: 人口增长和贫困; SDA: 流浪狗袭击雪豹及其猎物; ICCC: 虫草/药草采挖造成的干扰; RCTD: 道路建设与旅游开发项目; MEHD: 矿产与水电开发。"

表2

全国及各省区开展的保护行动及其应对的威胁(编号含义见表1)"

保护行动
Protective actions
青海
Qinghai
西藏
Tibet
四川
Sichuan
新疆
Xinjiang
甘肃
Gansu
全国
China
应对威胁
Corresponding threat
保护地建设<BR/>Development of nature reserves 保护区监测与反盗猎巡护
Monitoring in conservation area and anti-poaching patrol
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.3
保护区能力建设 Capacity building of conservation area 3.4
建立新保护地 Establishing new conservation areas 2.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.5, 4.6
在地保护行动<BR/>Local protective actions 人兽冲突补偿/保险
Compensation/insurance for human-wildlife conflict
1.1, 1.4, 3.1, 4.2
扶贫/生计改善
Poverty alleviation/livelihood improvement
1.1, 1.4, 2.1, 2.4, 3.5, 4.2
社区/公民志愿者监测与反盗猎巡护
Community/citizen volunteer monitoring and anti-poaching patrol
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.3, 3.4, 3.5
放牧管理 Grazing management 2.1, 2.4
家畜疫病防治 Livestock disease prevention 2.5
拆除围栏 Fence removal 2.1, 2.2
流浪狗管理 Stray dogs ??management 1.5, 4.3
虫草/药草采集管理 Cordyceps/herb collection management 4.4
社区宣传教育 Community education 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 2.3, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5,4.4
政策与公众推动<BR/>Policy and public promotion 制定保护规划 Protection planning 3.1, 3.2
生态补偿 Ecological compensation 2.1, 2.4, 3.4, 3.5, 4.2
管理开发/发展类项目 Management of development projects 2.1, 2.2, 4.5, 4.6
政策建议 Policy suggestion 3.1, 3.2
公众宣传 Publicity 1.2, 3.1

图2

全球重点雪豹景观、全国保护区和雪豹分布位置关系图"

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