生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (9): 972-987.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018119

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高寒草地地下生物多样性: 进展、问题与展望

刘安榕1, 杨腾2, 徐炜1, 上官子健1, 王金洲1, 刘慧颖1, 时玉2, 褚海燕2, 贺金生1,3,*()   

  1. 1 (北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京 100871)
    2 (中国科学院南京土壤研究所, 南京 210008)
    3 (兰州大学草地农业生态系统国家重点实验室, 兰州 730020);
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-16 接受日期:2018-05-25 出版日期:2018-09-20 发布日期:2019-01-05
  • 通讯作者: 贺金生
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31630009)

Status, issues and prospects of belowground biodiversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland

Anrong Liu1, Teng Yang2, Wei Xu1, Zijian Shangguan1, Jinzhou Wang1, Huiying Liu1, Yu Shi2, Haiyan Chu2, Jin-Sheng He1,3,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
    3 State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020
  • Received:2018-04-16 Accepted:2018-05-25 Online:2018-09-20 Published:2019-01-05
  • Contact: He Jin-Sheng
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

栖息于土壤中的微生物和微型动物种类繁多、数量巨大, 在对地上生物多样性的调控和在生态系统功能与服务的维系中, 具有举足轻重的作用。虽然对土壤微生物以及土壤动物已经开展了广泛的调查, 但是整体上对于地下生物多样性的分布格局、驱动机制及其对全球变化的响应与适应过程, 仍缺乏深刻的认识。青藏高原是全球变化的敏感区域, 其中高寒草地是高原最主要的植被类型, 占高原面积的60%左右, 在高寒生态系统生物多样性维持中具有重要意义。近年来, 已有大量研究关注于高寒草地地下生物多样性, 但是缺乏系统的总结与论述。基于此, 本文从细菌、真菌、古菌、线虫、节肢动物五大土壤生物类群出发, 阐述了青藏高原高寒草地的地下物种丰富度、分布格局及其影响因素, 重点探讨了它们对气候变化和人类活动的响应, 并就未来高寒草地地下生物多样性亟需关注的关键问题进行了展望, 包括: (1)地下各个生物类群的分布格局、各类群之间的联系及驱动机制; (2)地上与地下生物多样性耦联的机制; (3)地下生物多样性对生态系统功能和健康的影响; (4)地下生物多样性的调控实验研究。

关键词: 土壤微生物, 土壤动物, 生物多样性, 物种丰富度, 气候变化, 人类活动

Abstract:

The diversity and abundance of below-ground microorganisms and animals play an important role in shaping above-ground biodiversity and helps maintain ecosystem function. Yet, we have a limited understanding of belowground biodiversity, e.g. its spatial/temporal patterns, driving factors and responses to global change and human activities. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for the Tibetan alpine grassland that is sensitive to climate change and occupies 60% of the area of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we first review recent studies that reported the drivers of patterns in five major soil organism groups, including fungi, bacteria, archaea, nematodes and arthropods on Tibetan alpine grassland. We then focus on the responses of soil biodiversity to climate change and human activities. Finally, we highlight some open questions for future research of soil diversity on the Tibetan alpine grassland. Specifically, we recommend that future studies examine (1) The mechanisms underlying distribution patterns of belowground biodiversity; (2) Links between aboveground and belowground biodiversity; (3) Effects of belowground biodiversity on the health and functioning of ecosystems; (4) Manipulative experiments of belowground biodiversity.

Key words: soil microorganisms, soil animals, biodiversity, species richness, climate change, human activities