生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (5): 476-485.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018036

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

大蜜蜂的生物学特性、面临威胁与保护策略

杨培1, 彭艳琼1, *(), 赵荣华2, 杨大荣1   

  1. 1 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
    2 云南中医学院, 昆明 650500
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-05 接受日期:2018-03-28 出版日期:2018-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 彭艳琼 E-mail:pengyq@xtbg.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1700704)、南药研究协同创新中心基金资助项目(30270100500)和中国科学院“一三五”专项(2017XTBG-F01)

Biological characteristics, threat factors and conservation strategies for the giant honey bee Apis dorsata

Pei Yang1, Yanqiong Peng1, *(), Ronghua Zhao2, Darong Yang1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming 650500
  • Received:2018-02-05 Accepted:2018-03-28 Online:2018-05-20
  • Contact: Peng Yanqiong E-mail:pengyq@xtbg.ac.cn
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

昆虫传粉在维持植物的有性繁殖、物种形成及生态系统稳定中扮演着重要角色, 而野生传粉昆虫为生态系统提供了巨大的传粉服务功能。大蜜蜂(Apis dorsata)为亚洲特有的一种野生传粉昆虫, 是热带地区多种植物和农作物的有效传粉者, 在保障热带生物多样性及作物产量中有不可或缺的作用。但受全球气候变化、人类活动和生境恶化等因素的影响, 其种群数量日益减少, 开展大蜜蜂种质资源保护势在必行。本文综述了大蜜蜂筑巢、迁飞和传粉服务功能, 分析了人为猎取蜂巢, 栖息生境遭受破坏, 杀虫剂和除草剂滥用, 昆虫、螨类和病原物侵染, 气候变化等威胁种群的因素, 以期从强化大蜜蜂基础研究和保护、推动生态农业发展、建立适合大蜜蜂迁飞生态廊道、加强检验检疫及科学合理利用大蜜蜂种质资源等方面制定相应的保护措施。

关键词: 大蜜蜂, 野生传粉昆虫, 传粉服务, 威胁因素, 保护

Insect pollinators play a vital role in plant sexual reproduction. Pollinators facilitate cross-pollination that in turn promotes genetic diversity, mediates plant speciation, and contributes to ecosystem stability. However, the abundance, diversity and health of wild pollinators are threatened by human activities such as anthropogenic climate impacts, habitat destruction and environmental pollutants, and the impact of these human activities on ecosystems is likely to increase. Despite recognizing the importance of wild pollinators and the implementation of targeted conservation programs, the contemporary threats of wild insect pollinators remain poorly understood. For the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata), an important wild pollinator and honey producer in tropical rainforests and agricultural areas across Asia, here we describe nest characteristics, colony migration and pollination role and review threats to their conservation. We found that A. dorsata nests featured a single honeycomb hanging from the branches of large trees. The bees undertook long distance migrations to locate seasonally ephemeral forage sources but regularly returned to previous nesting sites. We identified several anthropogenic activities that posed significant threats to A. dorsata conservation: harvesting entire colonies, deforestation, pesticide and herbicide utilization, parastioids, mites, pathogens and climate change. Based on our study, we recommend several conservation initiatives to promote wild A. dorsata populations, which include artificial domestication, developing ecological agriculture, establishing of ecological corridors, inspection and quarantine controls on domesticated colonies, and sustainable utilization of the floral resources used by A. dorsata. We hope that this review will stimulate future research on giant honey bees whilst playing a significant role in their conservation and sustainable utilization.

Key words: Apis dorsata, wild insect pollinators, pollination services, threat factors, conservation

图1

大蜜蜂的地理分布图(黑点表示文献记录的大蜜蜂的分布区)"

图2

大蜜蜂筑巢地。A: 木棉枝干的蜂巢; B: 悬崖上的蜂巢; C: 屋檐下的蜂巢; D: 工蜂聚集状"

图3

大蜜蜂传粉的4种热带植物。A: 非洲芙蓉; B: 阳春砂仁; C: 紫苞芭蕉; D: 水柳。"

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