生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (8): 903-910.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019211

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大小兴安岭可培养细菌的资源多样性

刘君1,王宁2,崔岱宗2,卢磊2,赵敏2,*()   

  1. 1. 内蒙古大兴安岭林业科学技术研究所, 内蒙古牙克石 022150
    2. 东北林业大学生命科学学院, 哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-01 接受日期:2019-09-03 出版日期:2019-08-20 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵敏
  • 基金资助:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2014FY210400)

Diversity of bacterial resources in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains

Jun Liu1,Ning Wang2,Daizong Cui2,Lei Lu2,Min Zhao2,*()   

  1. 1. Inner Mongolia Daxing’anling Forestry Science and Technology Research Institute, Yakeshi, Inner Mongolia 022150;
    2. College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2019-07-01 Accepted:2019-09-03 Online:2019-08-20 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: Zhao Min

摘要:

细菌作为微生物中的重要组成部分, 在有机质的形成与分解、维持生态系统平衡、促进动植物发育等多方面都有着重要作用。2014-2017年, 我们采用常见培养基分离纯培养法及16S rRNA基因序列分析方法对大小兴安岭地区土壤可培养细菌的群落结构和多样性进行了调查研究。结果表明: 从大小兴安岭地区的17个自然保护区内不同生境的土壤中分离获得3,180个菌株, 隶属于24属120种。其中, 芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)的种数和株数最多, 分别为38种和2,419株, 是大小兴安岭地区可培养细菌的绝对优势类群(占总株数的76.1%); 其次是短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)(13.0%)。大兴安岭地区的物种数、Simpson多样性指数和Shannon-Wiener指数高于小兴安岭地区。优势类群芽孢杆菌属的枯草芽孢杆菌(B. subtilis)、苏云金芽孢杆菌(B. thuringiensis)、巨大芽孢杆菌(B. megaterium)等有重要的生产及科学研究价值。

关键词: 大兴安岭, 小兴安岭, 细菌多样性, 纯培养, 16S rRNA, 芽孢杆菌属

Abstract:

As an important part of all microorganisms, bacteria play a vital role in the formation and decomposition of organic matter, the maintenance of ecosystem balance and the promotion of both animal and plant development. Here, the community structure and population diversity of culturable soil bacteria in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains were studied from 2014 to 2017 using the culture-dependent 16S rRNA sequencing method. Three thousand one hundred eighty bacterial strains were isolated from different habitats across 17 nature reserves in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains. Twenty-four genera and 120 species were identified from the specimens. Among them, Bacillus had the largest number of species and strains, 38 and 2,419, respectively. Bacillus was the dominant genus (76.1%) for this culture of bacteria from the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains, followed by Brevisbasillus (13.0%). The species number, Simpson diversity index and Shannon-Wiener index were higher in the Greater Khinggan Mountains than the Lesser Khinggan Mountains. The subsequent analysis of the dominant genus of Bacillus showed that B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis and B. megaterium were important for the local economy and future scientific research.

Key words: the Great Khinggan Mountains, the Lesser Khinggan Mountains, bacterial diversity, pure culture, 16S rRNA, Bacillus