生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 533-546.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.533

所属专题: 外来物种入侵:机制、影响与防控

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基因组学: 理解植物入侵性的重要工具

尚蕾1; 央金卓嘎2; 杨继1; 李博1*   

  1. 1复旦大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室、长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200433
    2西藏自治区高原生物研究所, 拉萨 850001
  • 收稿日期:2010-07-05 出版日期:2010-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 李博

Genomics: an important tool for understanding plant invasiveness

Lei Shang1, Yangjin Zhuoga2, Ji Yang1 , Bo Li1*   

  1. 1Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433

    2Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology, Lhasa 850001
  • Received:2010-07-05 Online:2010-11-20
  • Contact: Bo Li

入侵植物基因组学是一个新兴的研究领域, 它利用基因组学方法研究与植物入侵性相关的分子基础和表达调控机制, 甄别入侵性基因型, 进而在基因组水平上揭示外来种入侵性产生和进化的分子机制。本文扼要综述了可用于植物入侵生物学研究的主要基因组学方法, 包括比较基因组学、群体基因组学和表观基因组学等方法; 运用基因组学技术研究入侵植物除草剂抗性和根状茎发育的分子基础已取得了重要进展。然而, 入侵植物基因组学仍处于发展初期, 选择理想的入侵植物模式种, 建立入侵性研究的模式系统, 是当前亟待解决的问题。本文还提出了入侵植物基因组学研究值得关注的几个发展方向, 包括基因组信息的完善、不同环境条件下入侵植物的分子响应机制以及入侵性的系统生物学研究等。

关键词: 土壤动物群落, DG指数, 多样性概念, 客观检验

Invasive alien species threaten both native ecosystems and local economies and thus, considerable efforts have been expended to understand why certain alien species invade their non-native ecosystems so successfully and what consequences their successful invasions have for the invaded ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying the successful invasions by alien plants remain highly controversial as little is known about the determinants of plant invasiveness; this information is critical in understanding the mechanisms of successful invasions. With the development of new techniques, a new area, ‘invasive plant genomics’, emerged recently, in which genomic approaches are used for understanding plant invasiveness, and hence plant invasions at the genetic level. Here we review three genomic approaches that could be used in plant invasion biology, and discuss the selection of model invasive species and future research directions in invasive plant genomics. First, comparative genomics offers a way to analyze genome constitution and structure based on genome mapping and full sequencing. Second, functional genomics allows us to identify candidate genes that contribute to the invasive characteristics through natural selection experiments, and determine their functions using “forward ecology” methods. Third, epigenetic genomics complements to the above two approaches, and provides information on gene expression patterns, thereby helping us to understand interactions between genes and the environment. With these genomic approaches, it is possible to dissect the invasiveness-related genes and their expression and regulation patterns, identify invasive genotypes and hence understand plant invasiveness. With this information it is theoretically possible to disassemble plant invasion mechanisms and define the evolutionary patterns during plant invasions. Through use of genomic tools, much progress has already been made in two aspects of plant invasions, namely the molecular basis of weed herbicide-resistance and rhizome development in invasive plants. However, invasive plant genomics is still at an early stage. We urgently need to identify ideal model invasive plants or model systems for use in invasive plant genomics. Other important issues that need to be addressed in future research include genomic information accumulation, molecular responses to varying environmental conditions and systems biology of invasive plants.

[1] 廖崇惠, 李健雄. (2009) 再论DG指数的性质与应用. 生物多样性, 17(2): 127-134.
[2] 王金凤, 由文辉, 易兰. (2007) 上海宝钢工业区凋落物中土壤动物群落结构及季节变化. 生物多样性, 15(5): 463-469.
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