生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 737-745.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.140073

所属专题: 野生动物的红外相机监测

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利用红外相机技术分析秦岭有蹄类动物活动节律的季节性差异

贾晓东1, 2, 刘雪华2(), 武鹏峰3, 杨兴中1, 蔡琼5, 何祥博6, 朱云5   

  1. 1.西北大学生命科学学院, 西安 710069
    2 .清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084
    3 .沈阳师范大学化学与生命科学学院, 沈阳 110034
    4.Conservation Ecology Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA
    5 .陕西观音山自然保护区, 陕西佛坪 723400
    6 .陕西佛坪自然保护区, 陕西佛坪 723400
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-08 接受日期:2014-11-28 出版日期:2014-11-20
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金“干扰机制下秦岭森林景观格局对动物多样性及行为特征的影响”(41271194)

Seasonal activity patterns of ungulates in Qinling Mountains based on camera-trap data

Xiaodong Jia1, 2, Xuehua Liu2, *(), Xingzhong Yang1, Pengfeng Wu3, Melissa Songer4, Qiong Cai5, Xiangbo He6, Yun Zhu5   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Northwestern University, Shaanxi 710069
    2 School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    3 School of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Shenyang Normal University, Liaoning 110034
    4 Conservation Ecology Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA
    5 Shaanxi Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, Foping County, Shaanxi 723400
    6 Shaanxi Foping Nature Reserve, Foping County, Shaanxi 723400
  • Received:2013-04-08 Accepted:2014-11-28 Online:2014-11-20
  • Contact: Liu Xuehua E-mail:xuehua-hjx@tsinghua.edu.cn

2009年8月至2013年4月期间, 在陕西观音山自然保护区, 利用18台红外相机收集到羚牛(Budorcas taxicolor)、川西斑羚(Naemorhedus griseus)、中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii)、毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus)、小麂(Muntiacus reevesi)、林麝(Moschus berezovskii) 6种有蹄类动物的照片数据, 通过相对丰富度指数分析了它们的活动规律及季节性差异。结果表明: (1)6种有蹄类动物在研究区域总丰富度达到了58.71%, 其中羚牛的相对丰富度是28.02%, 川西斑羚13.24%, 毛冠鹿10.08%, 中华鬣羚4.21%, 小麂2.26%, 林麝0.90%。(2)6种有蹄类动物的月相对丰富度反映了其年活动格局, 其中羚牛、川西斑羚、毛冠鹿、中华鬣羚、小麂表现出一致性, 即夏季活动最为频繁, 秋季减弱, 冬季达到活动低谷, 春季逐渐回升; 而林麝则在冬季活动最为频繁, 夏季最弱。(3)日时间段相对丰富度反映了动物全年的日活动规律, 其中川西斑羚和羚牛相似, 主要以白天活动为主; 毛冠鹿、小麂、林麝具有明显的晨昏活动习性; 中华鬣羚活动高峰出现在02:00-06:00和20:00-22:00, 以夜间活动为主。(4)分析不同季节6种有蹄类动物日活动规律, 羚牛在春季出现一定的差异, 活动高峰出现在16:00-20:00; 川西斑羚、毛冠鹿、中华鬣羚在冬季表现出一定的差异, 活动高峰相对延迟或者提前; 小麂春季表现出差异, 活动主要集中在00:00-10:00和18:00-20:00; 林麝由于数据相对较少, 在4个季节表现出不同的活动规律。(5)夜行性分析得到中华鬣羚具有较强的夜间活动能力, 夜间相对丰富度达到了65.81%。这些研究结果有助于监测有蹄类动物种群的变化, 为保护区有效保护管理提供了数据支持。

关键词: 相机陷阱, 有蹄类, 活动节律, 季节性差异

Between August 2009 and April 2013, in the Guanyingshan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province, we collected photo data on six ungulates (Budorcas taxicolor, Naemorhedus griseus, Elaphodus cephalophus, Capricornis milneedwardsii, Muntiacus reevesi and Moschus berezovskii) with 18 infrared cameras. Using the relative abundance index (RAI), we analyzed activity patterns and seasonal differences of these six species. The results show that: (1) their total RAI in the study area reaches 58.71%, the RAI of B. taxicolor was 28.02%, and it was 13.24% for N. griseus, 10.08% for E. cephalophus, 4.21% for C. milneedwardsii, 2.26% for M. reevesi, and 0.90% for M. berezovskii. (2) Monthly RAIs (MRAI) of six ungulates reflected seasonal activity patterns; B. taxicolor, N. griseus, E. cephalophus, C. milneedwardsii, M. reevesi exhibited similar activity patterns. These species were most active in summer, became inactive in autumn and winter, and then gradually increased activity in spring. M. berezovskii, on the other hand, was most active in winter and least active in summer. (3) The time-period relative abundance indices (TRAI) of the six ungulates reflect their daily activity patterns. B. taxicolor and N. griseus have similar daily activity patterns with an active peak at 06:00-20:00.The daily activity pattern of E. cephalophus, M. reevesi and M. berezovskii showed obvious crepuscular habits. C. milneedwardsii also has two peaks but at 02:00-06:00 and 20:00-22:00 implying nocturnal activities. (4) Comparative analyses of daily activity patterns among the four seasons showed that B. taxicolor displayed a different pattern in spring with an activity peak at 16:00-20:00. Compared with other seasons, N. gresius, E. cephalophus and C. milneedwardsii have different patterns in winter with either a delayed or advanced activity peak. In the case of M. reevesi, spring daily activity patterns showed two peaks at 00:00-10:00 and 18:00-20:00. Due to a paucity of captures, M. berezovskii showed different activity patterns in all four seasons. (5) Analysis of the nocturnality showed that C. milneedwardsii was obviously nocturnal with a nighttime relative abundance index (NRAI) of 65.81%. Our results help us to understand the activity patterns of these ungulates in Qinling, to monitor their population dynamics, and provide a theoretical basis and data support for the nature reserves to protect the ungulate animals more efficiently.

Key words: activity patterns, camera trap, ungulates, relative abundance index (RAI), seasonal variation

图1

红外相机安装位点"

表1

6种有蹄类动物春夏秋冬4个季节的照片数"

物种
Species
有效照片数 Independents captures 样本量
Sample size
春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter
总和 Sum 396 870 544 350 2,160
羚牛 Budorcas taxicolor 181 333 300 217 1,031
川西斑羚 Naemorhedus griseus 91 257 77 62 487
毛冠鹿 Elaphodus cephalophus 62 176 115 18 371
中华鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii 27 53 43 32 155
小麂 Muntiacus reevesi 26 45 4 8 83
林麝 Moschus berezovskii 9 6 5 13 33

图2

观音山6种有蹄类动物的年活动格局"

图3

观音山6种有蹄类动物的日活动规律"

图4

观音山6种有蹄类动物不同季节的日活动规律"

图5

观音山6种有蹄类动物的夜间相对丰富度"

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