生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 311-319.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13173

所属专题: 海洋生物多样性

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长江口及其邻近海域春季无脊椎动物群落时空变化

徐勇1, 2, 线薇微1, , A;*(), 李文龙1   

  1. 1.中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东青岛 266071
    2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-27 接受日期:2013-11-22 出版日期:2014-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 线薇微 E-mail:wwxian@qdio.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41176138, 31272663)和国务院三峡工程建设委员会资助项目(JJ 2012-2013)

Spatial and temporal variations of invertebrate community in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters

Yong Xu1, 2, Weiwei Xian1, *(), Wenlong Li1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2013-07-27 Accepted:2013-11-22 Online:2014-05-20
  • Contact: Xian Weiwei E-mail:wwxian@qdio.ac.cn

为了研究长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物群落结构和多样性的时空变化特征, 我们于1999-2012年春季在长江口及其邻近海域采用定点底层双拖网调查方式进行无脊椎动物调查。结果表明: (1)1999-2012年长江口水域共记录无脊椎动物41种, 隶属6纲10目23科, 其中甲壳动物种类最多(26种), 其次为软体动物(13种)。不同年份种类数量呈先下降后上升的趋势。(2)优势种主要包括日本枪乌贼(Loligo japonica)、三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)、葛氏长臂虾(Palaemon gravieri)和鹰爪虾(Trachypenaeus curvirostris)等, 其在年间存在剧烈变动, 但日本枪乌贼几乎每年都是优势种。(3)长江口无脊椎动物丰度、种类丰富度和多样性在年间均存在显著差异, 1999年和2001年最高, 2004年后呈先下降后恢复上升的趋势。(4)长江口水域的无脊椎动物在每个航次调查中都存在2-3个群聚类型, 并有不同的指示种类。(5)1999-2012年长江口无脊椎动物群落的时间变化可划分为3个阶段: 1999-2001年多样性程度最高, 2004-2007年下降至最低水平, 2009-2012年多样性显著回升, 但尚未恢复到1999-2001年的水平。与20世纪80年代相比, 蟹类减少导致长江口无脊椎动物生物量整体水平下降, 高营养级生物资源衰退带来了无脊椎动物中低营养级生物种群的迅速发展。

关键词: 无脊椎动物, 多样性, 群聚结构, 长江口

In order to study the spatial and temporal variations of invertebrate community structure and diversity in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters, we investigated invertebrate populations using fixed double bottom trawling during the springs of 1999-2012. Results show that: (1) there were 41 invertebrate species recorded, belonging to 6 classes, 10 orders, and 23 families. Crustaceans were the most recorded species (26 species), followed by mollusks (13 species). The number of recorded species decreased over the sampling period; (2) dominant invertebrates included Loligo japonica, Portunus trituberculatus, Palaemon gravieri, and Trachypenaeus curvirostris. There was significant inter-annual variation but Loligo japonica was the most dominant species across the sampling period; (3) there was significant inter-annual variation in invertebrate abundance, species richness and diversity in the estuary. Abundance, species richness and diversity peaked in 1999 and 2001, and increased after 2004; (4) there were 2 or 3 species assemblages in the estuary, which had different indicator species; (5) the temporal variation in the invertebrate community can be divided into three distinct periods. 1999-2001 featured high species diversity, 2004-2007 saw a decrease to the lowest species diversity, and by 2009-2012 diversity had recovered but was still below the level of 1999-2001. A decline in crab populations has resulted in the decline of overall invertebrate biomass, while deficiencies at high trophic levels has promoted a diversification of invertebrate diet.

Key words: invertebrate, diversity, assemblages, Yangtze River Estuary

图1

长江口及其邻近海域调查站位(虚线内为无脊椎动物拖网区域)"

表1

长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物优势种(*表示优势种)"

优势种
Dominant species
相对重要性指数 Index of relative importance (IRI)
1999 2001 2004 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012
日本枪乌贼
Loligo japonica
2,325.12* 1,837.36* 10,771.45* 5,068.75* 1,498.70* 8,592.64* 4,405.20* 51.10
三疣梭子蟹
Portunus trituberculatus
504.10 1,477.50* 524.52 2,539.17* 386.30 2,751.48* 2,389.23* 1,087.91*
葛氏长臂虾
Palaemon gravieri
7,666.02* 1,220.41* 295.50 - 1.84 641.43 4,004.96* 1,859.62*
鹰爪虾
Trachypenaeus curvirostris
21.38 514.88 871.42 62.80 1,357.33* 1,057.00* 2,637.39* 470.61
脊腹褐虾
Crangon affinis
37.23 - - 1.77 0.10 197.40 325.02 8,049.46*
细点圆趾蟹
Ovalipes punctatus
15.40 204.23 - 7.35 - - 160.96 3,615.75*
红星梭子蟹
Portunus sanguinolentus
- 5.18 - 430.39 432.49 1,003.69* - -
剑尖枪乌贼
Loligo edulis
- - - - 8,233.6* - 44.55 -
细巧仿对虾
Parapenaeopsis tenella
10.97 1,365.32* - - - 0.12 - -
鞭腕虾
Hippolysmata vittata
5.92 19.2 - 1,224.32* - 2.27 1.53 -

图2

长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物累积优势度"

表2

长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物多样性指数(平均值±标准误)"

年份
Year
物种数
Number of species
种类丰富度
Species richness
(D)
丰度
Abundance
(kN/km2)
生物量
Biomass
(kg/km2)
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
(H'n) (H'w)
1999 27 1.44 ± 0.18A 15.96 ± 5.25A 44.26 ± 9.46A 0.86 ± 0.14A 1.14 ± 0.12A
2001 28 1.42 ± 0.18A 12.54 ± 3.13A 78.07 ± 17.95A 1.26 ± 0.15B 1.35 ± 0.19A
2004 6 0.27 ± 0.11B 0.56 ± 0.19B 10.73 ± 4.82B 0.28 ± 0.11C 0.35 ± 0.14B
2007 15 0.57 ± 0.06BC 4.31 ± 1.69C 48.95 ± 14.50A 0.49 ± 0.08CD 0.72 ± 0.09BC
2009 13 0.84 ± 0.14CD 9.41 ± 6.88CD 188.58 ± 148.86A 0.79 ± 0.11AD 0.94 ± 0.10AC
2010 20 0.83 ± 0.12CD 7.46 ± 2.09ACD 43.89 ± 7.50A 0.70 ± 0.14AD 0.88 ± 0.13AC
2011 20 1.01 ± 0.14D 6.36 ± 2.15ACD 41.65 ± 8.76A 1.03 ± 0.13AB 0.95 ± 0.10AC
2012 17 1.13 ± 0.11AD 35.14 ± 26.39AD 91.38 ± 37.95A 1.05 ± 0.11AB 1.04 ± 0.08A

表3

不同时段长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物多样性指数(平均值±标准误)"

时段
Period
种类丰富度
Species richness (D)
丰度
Abundance
(kN/km2)
生物量
Biomass
(kg/km2)
Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
(H'n) (H'w)
1999-2001 1.43 ± 0.12A 14.25 ± 3.01A 61.17 ± 10.50A 1.06 ± 0.11A 1.24 ± 0.11A
2004-2007 0.44 ± 0.06B 2.64 ± 1.00B 31.96 ± 9.01B 0.39 ± 0.07B 0.55 ± 0.09B
2009-2012 0.95 ± 0.06C 14.73 ± 6.97C 92.22 ± 38.95A 0.89 ± 0.06A 0.95 ± 0.05C

图3

长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物丰度的NMDS排序"

图4

不同时段长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物丰度的NMDS排序"

附表1

1999-2012年春季长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物种类组成"

1999 2001 2004 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012
环节动物门 Annelida
小头虫科 Capitellidae
丝异须虫 Heteromastus filiforms *
软体动物门 Mollusca
象牙贝目 Dentalioida
象牙贝科 Dentaliidae
角贝1种 Dentalium spp. *
新腹足目 Neogastropoda
骨螺科 Muricidae
脉红螺 Rapana venosa *
狭舌目 Stenoglossa
塔螺科 Turridae
细肋蕾螺 Gemmula deshayesii * *
背楯目 Notaspidea
片鳃海牛科 Arminidae
微点舌片鳃海牛 Armina babai *
八腕目 Octopoda
章鱼科 Octopodidae
短蛸 Octopus ocellatus * * * * *
长蛸 O. variabilis * * * * *
枪形目 Enoploteuthidae
柔鱼科 Ommastrephidae
太平洋褶柔鱼 Todarodes pacificus *
枪乌贼科 Loliginidae
剑尖枪乌贼 Loligo edulis * * *
日本枪乌贼 L. japonica * * * * * * * *
乌贼目 Sepioidea
耳乌贼科 Sepiolidae
四盘耳乌贼 Euprymna morsei *
双喙耳乌贼 Sepiola birostrat * * * *
乌贼科 Sepiidae
金乌贼 Sepia esculenta * * *
曼氏无针乌贼 Sepiella maindroni * * * *
节肢动物门 Arthropoda
十足目 Decapoda
对虾科 Penaeidae
周氏新对虾 Metapenaeus joyneri * * * * * * *
鹰爪虾 Trachypenaeus curvirostris * * * * * * * *
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii *
细巧仿对虾 P. tenella * * *
戴氏赤虾 Metapenaeopsis dalei * * *
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis * * * * * *
樱虾科 Sergestidae
中国毛虾 Acetes chinensis * *
玻璃虾科 Pasiphaeidae
细螯虾 Leptochela gracilis * *
鼓虾科 Alphidae
鲜明鼓虾 Alpheus distinguendus * * * *
日本鼓虾 A. japonicas * * * *
藻虾科 Hippolytidae
鞭腕虾 Hippolysmata vittata * * * * *
长足七腕虾 Heptacarpus ractirostrs *
长臂虾科 Palaemonidae
安氏白虾 Exopalaemon annandalei * *
秀丽白虾 E. modestus *
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri * * * * * * *
褐虾科 Crangonidae
脊腹褐虾 Crangon affinis * * * * * *
绵蟹科 Dromiidae
绵蟹 Dromia dehanni * *
关公蟹科 Dorippidae
日本关公蟹 Dorippe japonica *
馒头蟹科 Calappidae
逍遥馒头蟹 Calappa philargius *
梭子蟹科 Portunidae
细点圆趾蟹 Ovalipes punctatus * * * * *
三疣梭子蟹 Portunus trituberculatus * * * * * * * *
红星梭子蟹 P. sanguinolentus * * * *
纤手梭子蟹 P. gracilimanus *
日本蟳 Charybdis japonica * * * *
双斑蟳 C. bimaculata * * * * * * *
口足目 Stomatopoda
虾蛄科 Squillidae
口虾蛄 Oratosquilla oratoria * * * * * * * *
棘皮动物门 Echinodermata
拱齿目 Camarodonta
球海胆科 Strongylocentrotidae
马粪海胆 Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus *

附图1

长江口及其邻近海域无脊椎动物群聚结构(各分支上的数字表示站位, 带有字母(A, B, C)的站位为根据天气情况设置的加站)"

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