生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 302-310.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13141

所属专题: 海洋生物多样性

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珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物多样性随盐度、水深的变化趋势

张敬怀()   

  1. 国家海洋局南海环境监测中心, 广州 510300
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-24 接受日期:2013-12-09 出版日期:2014-05-20
  • 基金项目:
    国家海洋公益性项目(201005012-7)和南海分局局长基金(1233)

The variation of biodiversity of macrobenthic fauna with salinity and water depth near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea

Jinghuai Zhang*()   

  1. South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Guangzhou 510300
  • Received:2013-06-24 Accepted:2013-12-09 Online:2014-05-20
  • Contact: Zhang Jinghuai E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com

利用2006年7-8月(夏季)、2007年4-5月(春季)和2007年10-12月(秋季)珠江丰水期、平水期和枯水期3个航次在南中国海北部珠江口附近海域4条由河口、近岸到深水区调查断面的数据, 研究大型底栖动物多样性由河口-近岸-深水的变化趋势及与环境因子的关系。春季、夏季和秋季分别获得大型底栖动物273、256和148种, 各季节均以环节动物种类最多, 节肢动物次之。大型底栖动物种类数、丰度、生物量和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数均由河口向近岸海域升高, 再由近岸向外海深水区降低。Pielou均匀度深水区最高, 其次为近岸。河口和深水区大型底栖动物k-优势度曲线位于近岸浅水域曲线之上, 表明生物多样性由河口向近岸升高, 而由近岸向深水则降低。大型底栖动物与环境因子Pearson相关性分析表明, 春、秋季大型底栖动物种类数、丰度和生物量与水深呈显著的负相关, 秋季种类多样性指数和均匀度也与水深呈显著的负相关性, 而夏季仅生物量与水深呈显著的负相关; 春、秋季大型底栖动物种类数、生物量、丰度、多样性指数和种类均匀度与盐度的相关性不显著, 但是夏季大型底栖动物种类数、丰度、多样性指数和种类均匀度与盐度呈显著正相关。单位面积(0.2 m2)内, 珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物在近岸浅水区较深水区和河口生物多样性高, 且生物量丰富。

关键词: 大型底栖动物, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数, k-优势度曲线, 珠江口

To study the relationship between macrobenthic fauna and environmental factors, we investigated four transects from coast to deep-sea waters near the Pearl Estuary in the northern South China Sea from July -August 2006 (Summer, wet season), April-May 2007 (Spring, normal water season), and October-December 2007 (Autumn, dry season). A total of 273 species, 256 species and 148 species were identified in spring, summer and autumn, respectively. Macrobenthic fauna belonging to the Annelida phylum had the greatest species richest, followed by Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Echinodermata. The species richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthic fauna increased from estuary sites to coastal sites, and decreased from coastal sites to deep-sea sites. The Shannon-Wiener index of macrobenthic fauna was higher in coastal sites than those in estuary and deep-sea sites. The species evenness of macrobenthic fauna was the highest in deep-sea sites, followed by coast and estuary sites. The k-dominance curves of macrobenthic fauna were higher in estuary and deep-sea sites than that in coastal sites. These results show that the macrobenthic biodiversity was the highest in coastal sites. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrobenthic fauna are negatively correlated with water depth in spring and autumn, but only biomass of macrobenthic fauna is negatively correlated with water depth in summer. The species richness, abundance, Shannon-Wiener index, and species evenness of macrobenthic fauna are positively correlated with salinity in the bottom of the water column in summer, but are not correlated in spring and autumn.

Key words: Macrobenthic fauna, Shannon-Wiener index, k-dominance curve, Pearl Estuary

图1

珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物调查站位示意图"

表1

珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀度(J')和环境因子"

断面
Transect
站位
Station
沉积类型
Sediment
水深
Water depth
春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn
BWS H' J' BWS H' J' BWS H' J'
T1 T1-01 细沙或泥 Silver sand or mud 15.5 34.0 3.44 0.72 31.5 2.00 1.00 31.4 4.14 0.93
T1-02 泥沙 Mud sand 48.1 34.3 3.41 0.90 34.3 4.22 0.82 33.1 3.48 0.87
T1-03 泥沙 Mud sand 97.5 34.4 3.92 0.94 34.5 2.81 0.70 34.2 2.32 1.00
T1-04 泥沙 Mud sand 259 34.5 1.58 1.00 34.5 1.37 0.86 34.5 NC NC
T1-05 沙 Sand 314 34.5 1.79 0.90 34.5 2.99 0.94 34.5 0.00 1.00
T2 T2-01 泥沙 Mud sand 8.5 13.7 1.91 0.95 0.8 2.15 0.83 15.0 1.45 0.72
T2-02 泥沙 Mud sand 10.7 10.5 1.00 1.00 1.6 0.00 1.00 15.6 0.00 1.00
T2-03 泥沙 Mud sand 7.7 18.0 2.13 0.92 6.0 2.25 0.97 17.0 2.11 0.75
T2-04 泥沙 Mud sand 9.8 32.2 3.75 0.68 18.0 1.50 0.95 21.6 1.36 0.68
T2-05 泥 Mud 9.0 32.5 4.04 0.81 19.8 2.05 0.79 26.5 2.59 1.00
T2-06 泥 Mud 6.0 31.9 0.20 0.06 9.8 2.92 0.92 27.9 3.39 0.98
T2-07 泥 Mud 7.9 31.1 2.71 0.78 28.1 2.93 0.93 29.1 3.07 0.89
T2-08 泥沙 Mud sand 16.8 33.4 4.65 0.88 30.3 4.24 0.93 32.8 4.00 0.85
T2-09 泥 Mud 31.0 34.4 4.14 0.92 34.3 3.67 0.92 32.9 3.12 0.90
T2-10 泥沙 Mud sand 41.6 34.4 4.61 0.93 34.31 4.02 0.96 33.6 3.68 0.97
T2-11 泥沙 Mud sand 54.0 34.4 3.72 0.95 34.4 4.31 0.98 34.0 3.80 0.89
T2-12 泥沙 Mud sand 70.8 34.4 3.17 1.00 34.4 4.08 0.87 34.1 4.28 0.98
T2-13 泥沙 Mud sand 92.4 34.4 3.48 0.94 34.4 3.67 0.94 34.2 2.95 0.98
T2-14 泥沙 Mud sand 131 34.6 2.86 0.90 34.5 2.52 0.98 34.3 1.00 1.00
T2-15 泥沙 Mud sand 486 34.4 3.52 0.93 34.5 2.41 0.93 34.4 2.65 0.94
T3 T3-01 泥沙 Mud sand 36 34.5 4.91 0.89 34.3 2.25 0.52 33.6 3.93 0.86
T3-02 泥沙 Mud sand 43.6 34.5 4.72 0.88 34.3 4.54 0.96 33.8 2.71 0.90
T3-03 泥沙 Mud sand 72.0 34.5 3.99 0.91 34.4 3.56 0.91 34.1 3.68 0.97
T3-04 泥沙 Mud sand 127 34.6 3.73 0.98 34.5 3.73 0.98 34.1 2.50 0.97
T3-05 泥沙 Mud sand 814 34.5 1.24 0.62 34.5 1.58 1.00 34.4 NC NC
T4 T4-01 泥 Mud 13.5 31.5 3.18 0.71 34.3 3.36 0.81 31.9 2.41 0.58
T4-02 泥沙 Mud sand 42.0 34.3 4.93 0.91 34.4 4.98 0.94 33.7 4.56 0.91
T4-03 泥沙 Mud sand 65.5 34.4 3.00 1.00 34.4 4.66 0.98 34.1 2.95 0.98
T4-04 泥沙 Mud sand 90.0 34.5 3.50 0.95 34.5 3.58 0.97 34.1 1.59 1.00
T4-05 泥沙 Mud sand 157 34.6 NC NC 34.6 1.79 0.90 34.5 1.50 0.95
T4-06 泥沙 Mud sand 455 34.4 NC NC 34.4 2.42 0.94 34.4 NC NC

图2

珠江口及邻近海域不同季节大型底栖动物种类组成。ANN, 环节动物; ART, 节肢动物; MOL, 软体动物; ECH, 棘皮动物; OSP, 其他类生物"

图3

不同季节珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物种类、丰度和生物量分布"

图4

珠江口及邻近海域T2断面大型底栖动物k-优势度曲线。A, 区域A (水深≤100 m); B, 区域B (水深>100 m); E, 河口(T2-01站至T2-07站)。"

表2

珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物种类数(S)、丰度(ABU)、生物量(BIO)、Shannon-Wiener指数(H')、Pielou均匀度(J')和环境因子的Pearson相关性"

季节 Seasons 项目 Items
S ABU BIO H' J'
春季 Spring (n=29)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.443* -0.524** -0.428* -0.306 -0.248
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.528** 0.413* 0.421* 0.447* 0.319
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.228 0.184 0.195 0.099 -0.121
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.643** 0.672** 0.481** 0.494** 0.371*
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.470** 0.351 0.324 0.324 0.074
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) 0.096 -0.013 0.003 0.023 -0.160
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) -0.076 0.230 0.226 -0.141 -0.013
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.556** 0.642** 0.506** 0.352 0.220
夏季 Summer (n=31)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.136 -0.17 -0.520** 0.082 0.212
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.152 0.146 0.379* -0.094 -0.246
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.469** 0.372* -0.038 0.603** 0.547**
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.373* 0.27 0.362* 0.342 0.208
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.677** 0.532** 0.146 0.836** 0.723**
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) 0.487** 0.386* 0.001 0.659** 0.614**
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) -0.348 -0.241 0.230 -0.588** -0.588**
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.031 0.16 0.481** -0.199 -0.295
秋季 Autumn (n=27)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.618** -0.651** -0.633** -0.524** -0.490**
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.670** 0.661** 0.607** 0.633** 0.626**
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.048 -0.016 -0.119 0.126 0.089
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.710** 0.658** 0.570** 0.717** 0.699**
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.415* 0.311 0.144 0.484** 0.453*
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) -0.043 -0.099 -0.225 0.030 0.001
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.261 0.348 0.306 0.099 0.039
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.655** 0.714** 0.647** 0.532** 0.456**

图5

珠江口及邻近海域大型底栖动物相似性聚类分析。A, 区域A (水深≤100 m); B, 区域B (水深>100 m); E, 河口 (T2-01站至T2-07站)。"

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