生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 666-676.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11090

• • 上一篇    下一篇

人为干扰下西洞庭湖湿地景观格局变化及冬季水鸟的响应

刘云珠1, 史林鹭1, 朵海瑞1, 彭波涌2, 吕偲1, 朱轶1, 雷光春1, *()   

  1. 1 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083
    2 西洞庭湖省级自然保护区管理局, 湖南汉寿 415923
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-09 接受日期:2013-07-05 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春 E-mail:guangchun8099@gmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(2012CB417005, 2009CB421103)

Disturbance-driven changes to landscape patterns and responses of waterbirds at West Dongting Lake, China

Yunzhu Liu1, Linlu Shi1, Hairui Duo1, Boyong Peng2, Cai Lü1, Yi Zhu1, Guangchun Lei1, *()   

  1. 1 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2 West Dongting Lake Provincial Nature Reserve, Hanshou, Hunan 415923
  • Received:2013-04-09 Accepted:2013-07-05 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Lei Guangchun E-mail:guangchun8099@gmail.com

为了研究人类干扰对湿地生态系统造成的影响, 作者采用1996年12月4日TM遥感影像和2013年1月1日环境小卫星遥感影像, 对西洞庭湖土地利用/覆被变化(land-use and land-cover change, LUCC)和景观格局变化进行了分析, 并基于实地调查分析了西洞庭湖恢复湿地、片断化自然湿地和人工杨树林3种现有典型生境中水鸟群落结构和多样性的差异。LUCC和景观格局分析表明, 与1996年相比, 2013年西洞庭湖湖区杨树(Populus spp.)林面积增加了9倍, 芦苇(Phragmites australis)面积增加了30.6%, 水域、草滩、泥滩地等天然湿地面积分别减少了46.4%、49.8%和39.8%。湿地生境改变、破碎化严重, 景观破碎度指数(landscape fragmentation index, LFI)从1.239上升到2.897。3种典型生境中越冬水鸟的种群结构、数量及分布特征表明, 恢复湿地是当前部分越冬水鸟的主要栖息场所, 但水鸟群落结构简单, 多样性指数较低(H'=1.866); 自然湿地因严重破碎化, 面积变小, 水鸟数量较少, 但多样性指数较高(H'=2.118), 且是黑鹳(Ciconia nigra)、白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)等珍稀濒危物种的栖息地; 杨树林的种植改变了原有自然湿地景观, 仅发现水鸟1种2只, 说明其已不适宜水鸟栖息。本研究表明, 西洞庭湖湿地景观的改变、生境破碎化导致其生物多样性降低, 杨树种植对自然湿地的侵占是西洞庭湖湿地生态系统退化的主要原因, 在今后的湿地管理中应严格控制杨树林产业的发展, 并逐渐将人工杨树林恢复为自然湿地。

关键词: 西洞庭湖, 湿地, 人为干扰, 景观格局, 生境破碎化, 水鸟群落

To understand human impact on a wetland ecosystem, we analyzed the land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) and also changes to landscape pattern between 1996 and 2013, at West Dongting Lake (WDL), China. For this purpose, we examined remote sensing data and conducted field studies to compare community structure and diversity of waterbirds in three typical habitats: restored wetland, fragmented natural wetland and poplar plantation. Our results showed that the area used for poplar plantation increased 9 times from 1996 to 2013, while the area occupied by reed marsh increased by 30.6%. In contrast, areas of natural wetland, open water, and wet meadow/mudflat, were reduced by 46.4%, 49.8%, and 39.8%, respectively. The WDL wetland ecosystem was significantly fragmented and degraded over the same period as shown by an increase in landscape fragmentation index from 1.239 in 1996 to 2.897 in 2013. Comparisons of populations, species and distribution of waterbirds among three habitats showed. (1) Restored wetland provided habitat for several wintering waterbirds allowing a broader population distribution, but at the same time a simpler community structure with lower biodiversity (H'=1.866). (2) Fragmented natural wetland provided habitat for diverse wintering birds, including rare and endangered black stork (Ciconia nigra) and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus), thus rising the Shannon-Wiener index (H'=2.118) for the bird community in this type of habitat, although waterbird population numbers remained low. (3) Poplar plantation was, in general, not suitable for waterbirds with only two individuals of one species observed in this habitat during the field survey period. In conclusion, landscape pattern change and habitat fragmentation reduced biodiversity at WDL with the planting of poplar trees being the key driver of wetland ecosystem degradation. For future management, forestation should be restricted while restoration of natural wetland should be a high priority.

Key words: West Dongting Lake, wetland, human disturbance, landscape pattern, habitat fragmentation, waterbird community

图1

西洞庭湖位置图"

图2

西洞庭湖土地利用类型的变化。a: 1996年; b: 2013年; c: 2013年对比1996年土地利用类型发生改变的区域及选取的三种生境。①恢复湿地, ②片断化自然湿地, ③人工杨树林; 转换类型I: 天然湿地类型(水域、泥滩地、草滩, 下同)之间转换; 转换类型II: 天然湿地类型转换为人工类型(林地、芦苇及其他, 下同); 转换类型III: 人工类型之间转换; 转换类型IV: 人工类型恢复为天然湿地类型。"

表1

1996年和2013年各斑块类型面积(ha)及所占比例"

年份 Year 1996 2013
水域 Water 11,039(31.9%) 5,922(17.1%)
泥滩地 Mudflat 4,291(12.4%) 2,582(7.5%)
芦苇 Reed marsh 8,741(25.2%) 11,434(33.0%)
林地 Poplar plantation 902(2.6%) 8,918(25.8%)
草滩 Wet grassland 9,009(26.0%) 4,523(13.1%)
其他 Others 638(1.8%) 1,241(3.6%)
合计 Total 34,620 34,620

表2

2013年对比1996年土地利用转移矩阵(ha)"

水域
Water
泥滩地
Mudflat
芦苇
Reed marsh
林地
Poplar plantation
草滩
Wet meadow
其他
Others
水域 Water 5,145 2,131 758 747 2,112 146
A 46.6% 19.3% 6.9% 6.8% 19.1% 1.3%
B 86.9% 82.5% 6.6% 8.4% 46.7% 11.8%
泥滩地 Mudflat 33 257 1,382 1,204 1,346 69
A 0.8% 6.0% 32.2% 28.1% 31.4% 1.6%
B 0.6% 10.0% 12.1% 13.5% 29.8% 5.6%
芦苇 Reed marsh 149 65 5,271 1,864 440 952
A 1.7% 0.7% 60.3% 21.3% 5.0% 10.9%
B 2.5% 2.5% 46.1% 20.9% 9.7% 76.7%
林地 Poplar plantation 42 41 317 331 150 21
A 4.7% 4.5% 35.1% 36.7% 16.6% 2.3%
B 0.7% 1.6% 2.8% 3.7% 3.3% 1.7%
草滩 Wet meadow 39 47 3,693 4,754 441 35
A 0.4% 0.5% 41.0% 52.8% 4.9% 0.4%
B 0.7% 1.8% 32.3% 53.3% 9.8% 2.8%
其他 Others 514 41 13 18 34 18
A 80.6% 6.4% 2.0% 2.8% 5.3% 2.8%
B 8.7% 1.6% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.5%
变化率 Change rate -46.4% -39.8% 30.8% 888.7% -49.8% 94.5%
年均变化率 Annual change rate -2.7% -2.3% 1.8% 52.3% -2.9% 5.6%

表3

1996年和2013年西洞庭湖湿地斑块类型水平上的景观格局指数"

类型
Type
斑块个数 Number of patches 平均斑块面积
Mean patch size (ha)
最大斑块指数 Largest patch index 边缘密度 Edge density 平均斑块形状指数
Mean shape index
1996 2013 1996 2013 1996 2013 1996 2013 1996 2013
林地 Poplar plantation 54 294 16.71 30.33 0.22 10.62 5.44 24.22 2.28 1.69
水域 Water 44 52 250.89 113.89 23.35 4.56 18.63 14.35 2.41 2.39
芦苇 Reed marsh 174 244 50.23 46.86 8.39 6.39 19.68 33.64 1.94 1.99
草滩 Wet grassland 51 192 176.65 23.56 7.45 3.68 21.45 21.33 2.71 2.13
泥滩地 Mudflat 63 152 68.1 16.98 2.92 0.83 17.75 16.15 2.95 2.21
其他 Others 43 69 14.85 17.99 1.76 0.71 1.5 5.4 1.4 1.84

表4

1996年和2013年西洞庭湖湿地景观水平上的格局特征指数"

景观指数 Landscape pattern indices 1996 2013
蔓延度 Contagion 49.701 44.320
Shannon多样性指数 Shannon diversity index 1.490 1.596
Shannon均匀度指数 Shannon evenness index 0.832 0.891
景观破碎度指数 Landscape fragmentation index 1.239 2.897

表5

西洞庭湖主要水鸟类群"

类群 Group 数量
Individuals
种类
Species
类 Grebes 449 2
鸬鹚类 Cormorants 1,583 1
鹭类 Herons 407 3
雁类 Geese 359 2
鸭类 Ducks 12,522 12
鸻鹬类 Shorebirds 1,427 10
鸥类 Gulls 164 5
鹳类 Storks 25 1
鹤类 Cranes 17 1
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