生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 688-698.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11073

• • 上一篇    下一篇

靖江沿岸秋季鱼类群聚的组成特点及其丰度生物量变化

孙莎莎1, 唐文乔1, *(), 郭弘艺1, 李辉华1, 刘东1, 周天舒1, 陈浩洲2, 沈林宏2, 顾树信2   

  1. 1 上海海洋大学鱼类研究室, 水产种质资源发掘与利用省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306
    2 江苏省靖江市渔政管理站, 江苏靖江 214500
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-26 接受日期:2013-06-03 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔 E-mail:wqtang@shou.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201203065)和高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金(20123104110006)

Composition and changes in abundance and biomass of fish assemblages along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River over the last decade

Shasha Sun1, Wenqiao Tang1, *(), Hongyi Guo1, Huihua Li1, Dong Liu1, Tianshu Zhou1, Haozhou Chen2, Linhong Shen2, Shuxin Gu2   

  1. 1 Laboratory of Fishes, Shanghai Ocean University, Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306
    2 Administration of Fishery of Jingjiang, Jingjiang, Jiangsu 214500
  • Received:2013-03-26 Accepted:2013-06-03 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Tang Wenqiao E-mail:wqtang@shou.edu.cn

长江靖江段位于长江河口的近口段, 每天有两涨两落的不规则半日潮, 是国家级水产种质资源保护区, 在渔业资源养护中起着重要作用。为了弄清靖江段沿岸水域鱼类群聚的组成特点及其丰度生物量变化, 我们于2002-2011年对靖江沿岸秋季的鱼类群聚作了调查。结果显示, 10年间79个样本共有鱼类91种, 隶属于12目23科, 其中鲤形目47种, 鲈形目17种, 鲇形目10种; 从生态类型来看, 洄游鱼类4种, 河口鱼类13种, 淡水鱼类74种。10年间, 平均每年秋季出现鱼类47种, 平均Jaccard物种相似性系数仅53.72%, 处于中等相似水平。IRI≥100的优势种和常见种合计有42种, 年均19种, 占当年数量的92.26%。贝氏(Hemiculter bleekeri)、似鳊(Pseudobrama simony)、光泽黄颡鱼(Pseudobagrus nitidus)等小型种类, 以及翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)鳊(Parabramis pekinensis)、瓦氏黄颡鱼(P. vachellii)等中型种类的幼体是优势种和常见种的主体, 整个鱼类群聚的个体均重仅6.99 g。丰度生物量曲线显示, 除2010年外的其他年份, 第一优势种均为极小型鱼类, 2002-2009年的前面几个优势种也是小型鱼类, 仅2010和2011年有几种较大体型的种类加入到主要优势种行列。研究还显示, 最近10年来, 靖江沿岸水域秋季整个鱼类群聚的生物量、个体均重以及62%的优势种与常见种的种群数量, 在总体上有随年份而增加的趋势, 这预示着这一水域渔业资源可能已改善。

关键词: 长江, 沿岸水域, 鱼类群聚, 时间格局, ABC曲线

The Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River, which lies near the estuary with an irregular semidiurnal tide, is the National Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve and plays an important role in conserving fishery resources. To clarify the composition and changes in abundance/biomass of fish assemblages of these coastal waters, investigations were carried out along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River in the autumns of 2002 to 2011. Results showed that 91 species, belonging to 12 orders and 23 families, were collected from surveys conducted during this period. Fish included 47 species of Cypriniformes, 17 species of Perciformes and 10 species of Siluriformes. Four were migratory species, 13 were estuarine, and 74 were freshwater fish. The average number of different fish species recorded each autumn was 47 (range = 32-61), and mean Jaccard similarity index was 53.72 (range = 38.46-69.09)%. The total number of dominant and common species recorded was 42, with the annual value averaging 19. Dominant and common species were mainly small fish, such as Hemiculter bleekeri, Pseudobrama simony, Pseudobagrus nitidus etc., as well as juveniles of large or medium fish, such as Culter alburnus, Parabramis pekinensis, P. vachellii etc. The mean individual weight (MIW) of the fish assemblage was 6.99 g. The abundance biomass comparison curve indicated that the first dominant species recorded in autumn in all years except 2010 were all very small-sized fish. The most dominant species in 2002-2009 were also of small-size fish, and large-size fish only contributed to the dominant species in 2010 and 2011. Our research also indicated a general increase in abundance or biomass (CPUEN、CPUEW), the MIW of the fish assemblage, and the population size of 62% of dominant and common species. This suggested that fishery resources of the waters studied are likely to improve.

Key words: Yangtze River, offshore areas, fish assemblage, temporal pattern, ABC curve

图1

长江靖江段沿岸鱼类样本采集点"

图2

2002-2011年靖江段沿岸水域秋季鱼类群聚组成"

表1

2002-2011年秋季靖江段沿岸水域各年份鱼类群聚间Jaccard相似性系数(%)"

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2003 53.06
2004 50.91 59.32
2005 49.02 61.11 57.81
2006 47.17 56.14 67.24 33.33
2007 51.92 57.89 60.66 34.55 69.09
2008 52.83 53.33 58.73 47.54 61.02 54.84
2009 42.42 50.00 56.94 44.12 58.82 57.97 68.18
2010 46.00 55.56 55.93 54.55 52.63 57.14 55.17 60.94
2011 38.46 57.81 39.71 54.55 52.94 54.41 57.35 55.84 52.31

表2

秋季靖江段沿岸鱼类群聚的优势种与常见种的相对重要性指数(IRI)和鱼类个体均重(MIW)"

种类
Species
相对重要性指数 IRI 个体均值 MIW (g)
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
贝氏 Hemiculter bleekeri 5,288 5,704 6,100 3,604 5,984 7,698 5,640 7,646 3,525 5,812 3.49
Parabramis pekinensis 1,900 1,764 1,578 1,739 1,175 1,325 483 201 1,588 769 40.28
光泽黄颡鱼 Pelteobagrus nitidus 3,639 2,708 880 4,720 178 261 122 1,391 558 2.61
窄体舌鳎 Cynoglossus gracilis 1,247 583 708 284 462 618 245 460 195 11.21
刀鲚 Coilia nasus 1,110 878 836 344 446 1,140 639 1,242 556 6.06
似鳊 Pseudobrama simoni 343 511 1,559 586 1,561 2,268 1,298 1,435 4,250 1,927 8.81
麦穗鱼 Pseudorasbora parva 121 256 1,052 872 363 288 692 163 489 1.40
Carassius auratus 513 403 676 574 1,298 622 394 489 515 829 13.72
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 172 171 349 280 1,475 1,260 187.25
银鮈 Squalidus argentatus 433 223 362 709 538 251 1,354 2.75
亮银鮈 S. nitens 222 155 818 511 1,017 256 1.94
翘嘴鲌 Culter alburnus 108 268 830 786 231 148 579 295 304 40.85
瓦氏黄颡鱼 Pelteobagrus vachellii 487 370 784 353 226 255 738 202 7.41
棒花鱼 Abbotina rivularis 136 153 204 447 328 157 328 309 2.65
长蛇鮈 Saurogobio dunerili 326 251 441 678 120 246 9.18
凤鲚 Coilia mystus 579 351 120 3.55
铜鱼 Coreius heterodon 188 146 28.27
黄颡鱼 Pelteobagrus fulvidraco 183 269 22.77
Siniperca chuatsi 152 34.11
红鳍原鲌 Cultrichthys erythropterus 240 435 104 463 143 217 270 161 10.35
光唇蛇鮈 Squalidus gymnocheilus 478 215 574 184 2.48
Hemiculter leucisculus 212 202 605 3.06
Cyprinus carpio 195 108 103.71
鳡鱼 Elopichthys bambusa 155 139 181.99
银鲴 Xenocypris argentea 179 146 124 13.98
寡鳞飘鱼 Pseudolaubuca engraulis 304 370 3.15
乌鳢 Channidae argus 188 113 344 73.15
蛇鮈 Squalidus dabryi 164 168 234 4.84
高体鳑鲏 Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus 124 308 158 1.82
圆尾斗鱼 Macropodus chinensis 113 2.54
兴凯鱊 Acheilognathus chankaensis 521 159 910 3.20
草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idella 122 173 610 88.01
短盖肥脂鲤 Piaractus brachypomus 242 635 3.34
赤眼鳟 Squaliobarbus curriculus 192 265 80.64
彩石鳑鲏 Rhodeus lighti 156 120 1.20
日本鳗鲡 Anguilla japonica 116 159 89.98
青鱼 Mylopharyngodon piceus 269 21.63
香鱼衔 Repomucenus olidus 232 121 0.87
子棱吻虾虎鱼 Rhinogobius giurinus 186 2.27
缺鬚鱊 Acheilognathus imberbis 169 2.96
中国花鲈 Lateolabrax maculatus 101 24.92
Aristichthys nobilis 113 98.69

表3

靖江段沿岸秋季鱼类群聚优势种与常见种的物种数(S)及其种类占比(S%)、数量占比(N%)和重量占比(W%)"

年份 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 均值
Average
优势种
Dominant species
S 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 8 3 4
S% 12.50 9.30 5.88 9.09 8.89 6.38 8.16 3.27 19.51 5.17 8.81
N% 68.24 67.21 54.77 68.39 52.20 64.22 57.14 57.49 83.36 43.84 60.33
W% 58.83 45.66 37.61 49.36 49.45 48.70 31.82 33.31 78.17 49.76 47.09
常见种
Common species
S 12 13 15 16 18 15 18 20 7 17 15
S% 37.50 30.23 29.41 36.36 40.00 31.91 36.73 32.79 17.07 29.31 32.13
N% 25.75 22.37 38.41 38.41 40.37 25.59 36.35 33.26 11.64 45.77 31.79
W% 29.40 40.05 40.64 40.64 39.06 36.67 59.30 55.09 15.20 36.91 39.30
优势种与常见种Dominant and common species S 16 17 18 20 22 18 22 22 15 20 19
S% 50.00 39.53 35.29 45.45 48.89 38.30 44.90 36.07 36.59 34.48 40.95
N% 94.00 89.58 93.18 94.61 92.58 89.80 93.50 90.75 95.00 89.60 92.26
W% 88.23 85.71 78.25 92.11 88.51 85.37 91.12 88.40 93.37 86.66 87.77

图3

靖江段沿岸2002-2011年间鱼类群聚每年总体及优势种、常见种的个体均重的变化"

图4

2002-2011年秋季靖江段沿岸鱼类群聚的丰度生物量曲线(ABC曲线)及其W值"

图5

靖江段沿岸2002-2011年间鱼类群聚每年总体及其 优势种、常见种的单样本数量(CPUEN)和单样本重量 (CPUEW )变化"

表4

靖江段沿岸水域鱼类群聚及其中IRI≥100鱼类的个体均重(MIW)与单样本生物量(CPUE)的年相关性"

种 Species CPUEN CPUEW MIW
贝氏 H. bleekeri 0.30 0.43 0.73*
P. pekinensis -0.32 -0.67* -0.38
光泽黄颡鱼 P. nitidus -0.50 -0.56 0.19
窄体舌鳎 C. gracilis -0.52 -0.65* 0.09
刀鲚 C. nasus 0.24 0.50 0.52
似鳊 P. simoni 0.81** 0.87** 0.31
麦穗鱼 P. parva 0.35 0.36 0.36
C. auratus -0.05 0.62 0.22
H. molitrix 0.82** 0.88** -0.08
银鮈 S. argentatus 0.25 0.38 0.69*
亮银鮈 S. nitens 0.64* 0.66* -0.09
翘嘴鲌 C. alburnus 0.71* -0.60 -0.75*
瓦氏黄颡鱼 P. vachellii -0.26 -0.32 0.30
红鳍原鲌 C. erythropterus -0.13 -0.05 -0.24
草鱼 C. idella 0.62 0.31 -0.68
长蛇鮈 S. dunerili 0.01 -0.60 -0.42
棒花鱼 A. rivularis 0.42 0.26 0.07
乌鳢 C. argus 0.25 0.40 0.31
兴凯鱊 A. chankaensis -0.03 0.19 0.41
光唇蛇鮈 S. gymnocheilus 0.35 0.35 0.24
日本鳗鲡 A. japonica -0.31 0.44 0.47
鳡鱼 E. bambusa 0.41 0.36 -0.60
H. leucisculus -0.28 -0.37 -0.71
青鱼 M. piceus 0.25 0.21 -0.23
短盖肥脂鲤 P. brachypomus 0.10 0.10 -1.00
赤眼鳟 S. curriculus -0.44 -0.46 -0.26
C. carpio -0.61 -0.13 0.12
寡鳞飘鱼 P. engraulis -0.12 -0.03 -0.20
香鱼衔 R. olidus 0.33 0.65* 0.62
蛇鮈 S. dabryi 0.15 0.14 0.00
凤鲚 C. mystus 0.30 0.18 -0.43
高体鳑鲏 R. ocellatus ocellatus 0.37 0.23 -0.43
S. chuatsi -0.21 -0.42 -0.48
银鲴 X. argentea 0.03 -0.17 -0.60
黄颡鱼 P. fulvidraco -0.68* -0.26 0.52
彩石鳑鲏 R. lighti 0.34 0.34 -0.09
缺鬚鱊 A. imberbis 0.74* 0.71* 0.03
A. nobilis 0.29 0.29 1.00**
铜鱼 C. heterodon -0.89* -0.87* -0.40
子棱吻虾虎鱼 R. giurinus 0.40 0.42 0.36
中国花鲈 L. maculatus 0.53 0.51 -1.00
圆尾斗鱼 M. chinensis -0.18 -0.42 -0.59
整个鱼类群聚 The whole fish assemblage 0.64* 0.46 0.20
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