生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 758-764.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07153

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从植物遗传资源透视《名古屋议定书》对中国的影响

武建勇1, 薛达元1,2,*(), 赵富伟1, 王艳杰2   

  1. 1 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    2 中央民族大学生命与环境学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-03 接受日期:2013-11-25 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑课题(2007BAC03A08);环保部生物多样性保护专项和中央民族大学“985工程”和“111计划”项目

Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China

Jianyong Wu1, Dayuan Xue1,2,*(), Fuwei Zhao1, Yanjie Wang2   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Mingzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2013-07-03 Accepted:2013-11-25 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan

摘要:

《名古屋议定书》有望在2014年10月召开的《生物多样性公约》缔约方大会第12次会议前生效。《名古屋议定书》的生效将改变遗传资源及相关传统知识无序获取和无偿开发利用的局面, 对不同的国家和地区会产生不同的影响。基于资料、数据库检索以及实地调研获得的数据, 本文从植物遗传资源引种保存、专利申请和开发利用能力三个方面分析了中国遗传资源拥有量和开发利用能力, 研究探讨了《名古屋议定书》对中国的可能影响。结果表明, 中国遗传资源引出规模和潜在价值较大, 引进种类中, 品种占较大比例, 且很多品种含有中国种质; 发达国家在制药领域使用了大量中国的药用植物及其提取物, 同时, 国外机构和个人通过对中国植物的研究申请了大量专利。与此形成对照的是, 在国内申请的专利和发表的成果中利用的来源于国外的植物种类较少。中国遗传资源丰富, 但与发达国家相比, 基础研究能力不强, 在生物技术领域自主创新能力仍然欠缺, 生物遗传资源整体开发利用能力与发达国家差距较大, 而且缺乏针对遗传资源获取与惠益分享的政策与法规体系, 总体上属于遗传资源提供国。为此, 中国需要在国家和地方层面加强遗传资源获取与惠益分享的制度体系建设, 同时加强基础研究和开发能力建设, 提高执行《名古屋议定书》的能力。

关键词: 《生物多样性公约》, 生物技术, 传统知识, 获取与惠益分享, 引种, 资源流失

Abstract:

The Nagoya Protocol (NP) is an international legal framework for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. It opened for signature on February1, 2011, and was proposed to be in force 90 days after the date when the fiftieth country or regional organization had ratified it. By October 2013, the protocol had been signed by 92 countries and ratified by 26 countries. The protocol is now expected to be in force before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2014. The Nagoya Protocol will change the current situation of unordered access to and free development of genetic resources. It will provide a premise and guarantee for the principle of national sovereignty of genetic resources and implementation of equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization. Analyses show that although genetic resources indigenous to China have been widely utilized by other developed countries, with patents taken out on some products, utilization in China has been poor owing to a weak capacity for independent innovation and underdeveloped biotechnology. China currently lacks a policy and regulatory system for access and benefit sharing (ABS) to its genetic resources. It is, therefore, a pressing matter for China to improve the implementation of the NP by strengthening national and local policies and regulations on ABS. There is also a need to increase investment to support basic research capacity and develop biological technology to fully utilize genetic resources in China

Key words: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), biotechnology, traditional knowledge, access and benefit sharing (ABS), introduction, resources outflow