生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1120-1127.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020480

• 研究报告:文化多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

佤族传统文化在生物多样性保护中的作用

邵桦1,2, 杨京彪1,2,*(), 薛达元1,2,*()   

  1. 1.中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2.国家民委民族地区生态环境重点实验室, 中央民族大学, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-25 接受日期:2021-04-09 出版日期:2021-08-20 发布日期:2021-07-27
  • 通讯作者: 杨京彪,薛达元
  • 作者简介:yangjingbiao@muc.edu.cn
    * E-mail: xuedayuan@hotmail.com;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查、观测和评估项目(2019-2023年)

Applications of Wa traditional culture in biodiversity conservation

Hua Shao1,2, Jingbiao Yang1,2,*(), Dayuan Xue1,2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas, Minzu University of China, National Ethnic Affairs Commission, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2020-12-25 Accepted:2021-04-09 Online:2021-08-20 Published:2021-07-27
  • Contact: Jingbiao Yang,Dayuan Xue

摘要:

生物多样性与文化多样性相辅相成, 传统文化对生物多样性的保护作用已经得到广泛认可。佤族在长期利用和管理当地生物资源的过程中形成了丰富的民族文化, 研究佤族传统文化对生物多样性的保护作用对当地生物多样性保护和可持续发展具有重要意义。本研究以佤族聚居人口最多的西盟佤族自治县与沧源佤族自治县作为研究区域, 采用生态学和民族学方法调查了佤族利用的野生植物资源及相关传统文化。结果表明: 佤族传统使用的野生植物十分丰富, 是当地佤族形成传统饮食、医药、服饰、建筑文化的物质基础。基于自然崇拜形成的生态观、习惯法和节庆习俗可促进当地生物多样性保护与生物资源可持续利用。地方政府在传统文化和传统知识保护方面做出了积极努力, 非物质文化遗产项目已经应用于扶贫和乡村振兴的产业发展; 市场化和城市化发展、生活方式改变、生物资源减少、保护意识薄弱、外来文化侵蚀等是文化多样性丧失的主要因素; 地方社区将特色生物资源转化为生态产品的能力不足, 制约了生物资源的可持续利用。因此, 亟需健全保护传统知识和传承民族文化的政策和制度, 建立传统知识数据库, 加强宣传教育、科学研究和人才培养, 充分发挥少数民族优秀传统文化在生物多样性保护与生物资源可持续利用中的积极作用。

关键词: 传统文化, 生物多样性, 传统知识, 佤族, 云南, 中国

Abstract

Aims: There is an emerging recognition that cultural diversity and biodiversity are inherently linked. Wa people have formed a rich culture in the long process of utilization and management of biological resources from local areas. This study reports the wild plants traditionally used by Wa people and related traditional culture. It is of great significance to understand the interaction between Wa traditional culture and biodiversity for sustainable development of the community.

Methods: We investigated the wild plants traditionally used by Wa people and their culture in Cangyuan and Ximeng autonomous counties by a semi-structured interview method to gather the plant inventory and culture information.

Results: The wild plants traditionally used by Wa people are abundant, and are the basis for their traditional diet, medicine, clothing, and architectural culture. The ecological view, customary law, and customs of Wa people based on nature worship are constantly promoting the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity in the local areas. Local governments have made efforts to protect the traditional culture and knowledge. For example, intangible cultural heritage projects have been applied to facilitate industrial development for poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. The factors of cultural diversity loss include marketization and urbanization, lifestyle changes, weak protection consciousness, and invasion of foreign culture. Local communities' incompetence to transform characteristic biological resources into ecological products also restricts the sustainable utilization of bioresources.

Recommendations: Our recommendations include improving policies and regulations for traditional knowledge and culture, establishing databases of traditional knowledge, strengthening publicity activities and education to enhance the awareness of protection and inheritance, facilitating scientific knowledge research and professional experts training. Overall, promoting cultural diversity could be a promising approach for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of bioresources in the ethnic minority areas.

Key words: traditional culture, biodiversity conservation, Wa people, Yunnan Province, China