生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (2): 207-214.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.08239

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落多样性

吕振波1*, 李凡1, 徐炳庆1, 王波2   

  1. 1山东省海洋水产研究所, 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室, 山东烟台 264006
    2烟台大学海洋学院, 山东烟台 264005
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-22 修回日期:2012-01-12 出版日期:2012-03-20 发布日期:2012-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 吕振波
  • 基金资助:

    海洋公益性行业科研专项经费;山东省908专项

Fish community diversity during spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off the coast of Shandong

Zhenbo Lü1∗, Fan Li1, Bingqing Xu1, Bo Wang2   

  1. 1Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration for Marine Ecology, Yantai, Shandong 264006

    2Ocean School of Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong 264005
  • Received:2011-12-22 Revised:2012-01-12 Online:2012-03-20 Published:2012-04-09
  • Contact: Zhenbo Lü

摘要: 根据2006年春季(5月)和秋季(10月)黄海山东海域疏目变水层双拖网调查数据, 作者对该海域鱼类群落多样性、空间分布及长度谱特征进行了研究。调查共捕获鱼类61种, 其中鲈形目种类最多(27种), 其次为鲱形目(8种)和鲉形目(7种); 按摄食类型可分为浮游动物食性、浮游动物/底栖动物食性、底栖动物食性、底栖动物/游泳动物食性、游泳动物食性、杂食性、碎屑食性7个类群, 其中浮游动物食性占渔获物重量组成的82.5%。春、秋季鱼类群落均主要由小型种类占优势, 春季优势种有3种, 为玉筋鱼(Ammodytes personatus)、鳀(Engraulis japonicus)和方氏锦鳚(Pholis fangi), 秋季优势种有5种, 分别是鳀、青鳞小沙丁鱼(Sardinella zunasi)、玉筋鱼、小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)和赤鼻棱鳀(Thryssa kammalensis)。丰富度指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、均匀度指数(J')的空间异质性明显, 表现出近岸海域(尤其是青岛–乳山南部近岸海域)较高, 深水区较低的态势, 但多样性指数的季节间差异不显著。资源量与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、均匀度指数(J')、功能团多样性指数(FD)均呈负相关关系, 与种类丰富度指数(D)则无相关关系。春、秋季鱼类群落长度谱曲线斜率均小于–0.2, 而截距均大于10, 与该海域1985年及2000年的研究结果相比, 长度谱斜率显著降低、截距显著增加, 这与小型个体种类占优势密切相关。与历史资料相比, 黄海山东海域鱼类群落多样性下降, 小型个体比例上升, 资源呈衰退趋势。

Abstract: Based on trawl survey data from May and October of 2006 in Yellow Sea off the coast of Shandong, China (35º00′–38º00′N, 120º30′–124º00′E), fish composition, dominant species, fish community diversity and size spectra were studied. A total of 61 species were collected, all of them were Osteichthyes species, belonging to 57 genera, 37 families and 13 orders. The most species-rich orders were Perciformes (27 species), Clupeiformes (8 species) and Scorpaendiformes (7 species). There were 7 fish groups according to an analysis of feeding habit: planktivores, planktivores/benthivores, benthivores, benthivores/piscivores, piscivores, omnivores, detritivores. Planktivores accounted for 82.5% of the total catch. There were 3 dominant species (Ammodytes personatus, Engraulis japonicus and Pholis fangi) in spring and 5 dominant species (Engraulis japonicus, Sardinella zunasi, Ammodytes personatus, Larimichthys polyactis and Thryssa kammalensis) in autumn according to analysis of Hill’s diversity; most of these were small-sized species. The highest diversity was found in the coastal waters (particularly in Qingdao and southern of Rushan waters), fish diversity decreased with increasing of water depth, and no significant differences were found between spring and autumn diversity indices. Biomass was negatively correlated with overall diversity and functional group diversity. The slope of size spectra was less than –0.2 both in spring and autumn, and the intercepts were both bigger than 10. When comparing 2006 data to 1985 and 2000 data, slope decreased, and intercept increased. These results might be attributed to the increased dominance of small-sized species in the total catch. Compared with historical data, fish resources in Yellow Sea off the coast of Shandong are obviously declining, with community diversity decreasing and proportion of small-sized individual increasing.