生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (3): 324-329.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.06012

所属专题: 传粉生物学:理论探讨与初步实践

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

传粉榕小蜂与非传粉小蜂间寄主识别行为的趋同进化

顾丁1, 2, 彭艳琼1, 杨大荣1*   

  1. 1中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-12 修回日期:2012-02-16 出版日期:2012-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨大荣 E-mail:yangdr@xtbg.ac.cn;yangdr@xtbg.org.cn
  • 基金项目:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目

Convergence in host recognition behavior between obligate pollinating fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps

Ding Gu1, 2, Yanqiong Peng1, Darong Yang1*   

  1. 1Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303

    2Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2012-01-12 Revised:2012-02-16 Online:2012-05-20
  • Contact: Darong Yang E-mail:yangdr@xtbg.ac.cn;yangdr@xtbg.org.cn

在高度专性传粉的榕树-榕小蜂互惠共生系统中普遍存在着一些非传粉小蜂, 它们中的一些种类进入果腔后也能为榕树传粉, 且在形态和物候上已与传粉榕小蜂发生了趋同进化。但其寄主识别行为是否也与传粉榕小蜂发生了趋同进化还不得而知。我们在西双版纳选择了钝叶榕(Ficus curtipes)及其3种进果繁殖小蜂开展了相关的行为实验。3种小蜂中, 1种是钝叶榕的专性传粉榕小蜂(Eupristina sp.), 另外2种是寄居性非传粉小蜂(杨氏金小蜂Diaziella yangiLipothymus sp.), 这2种非传粉小蜂进入果腔后也像传粉榕小蜂那样为钝叶榕传粉。我们以钝叶榕不同发育时期的榕果及这3种小蜂为材料, 采用Y型嗅觉仪观察了这3种小蜂对各发育时期榕果和信息化学物质6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-醇、6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮及这2种化合物的混合物的选择行为。结果表明, 当提供雌花期榕果与其他发育时期榕果和空气对照供这3种小蜂选择时, 它们均显著地偏向于选择雌花期榕果; 当提供雄花期榕果与其他发育时期榕果和空气对照供这3种小蜂选择时, 它们均显著地偏向于选择其他发育时期榕果和空气对照, 即都会避开雄花期榕果; 此外, 这3种小蜂均对钝叶榕雌花期果释放的一种主要化合物6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-醇的同一剂量(1 μL)表现出显著的偏好。这一结果为传粉榕小蜂与非传粉小蜂间的寄主识别行为趋同进化的假说提供了证据。

The highly specific mutualism between fig trees and their obligate pollinating fig wasps is usually exploited by non-agaonid wasps, and some of these wasps can enter and pollinate the figs just like the obligate pollinating wasps. Therefore, the agaonid and non-agaonid wasps have convergently evolved in their morphological characteristics and phenology. However, there are few data about the convergence of host recognition behaviors among these wasps. In Ficus curtipes, there are three internally ovipositing wasps, i.e. one obligate pollinating wasp, Eupristina sp., and two inquiline wasps (Diaziella yangi and Lipothymus sp.), which can also pollinate the figs if they enter the figs. In this study, we carried out several behavioral experiments with a Y-tube olfactometer to test the hypothesis of convergence of host recognition behaviors among these wasps. We observed and recorded the wasps’ behavior of choice among figs at different developmental phases and among 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and the mixture of the two chemicals. Our results showed that all three of the wasps were significantly attracted by the receptive F. curtipes figs when presented with choices between receptive figs and figs at other developmental phases and were significantly repelled by the male phase figs of F. curtipes when presented with choices between male phase figs and figs at other developmental phases. In addition, all of them also preferred to the compound 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol at the dose level of 1μL. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis of convergence of host recognition behavior among obligate pollinating fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps. The role of behavioral convergence in the evolution of non-obligate pollinating wasps into obligate ones is also discussed.

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