生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 764-769.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.06164

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄海鱼类组成、区系特征及历史变迁

刘静*, 宁平   

  1. 中国科学院海洋研究所, 青岛 266071
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-15 修回日期:2011-11-08 出版日期:2011-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘静 E-mail:jliu@qdio.ac.cn

Species composition and faunal characteristics of fishes in the Yellow Sea

Jing Liu*, Ping Ning   

  1. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
  • Received:2011-09-15 Revised:2011-11-08 Online:2011-11-20
  • Contact: Jing Liu E-mail:jliu@qdio.ac.cn

本文根据中国科学院海洋研究所标本馆馆藏标本、采集记录及相关文献资料, 分析了黄海鱼类的种类组成、区系特征和历史变迁。结果表明: 黄海海域共出现鱼类113科321种。从适温类型来看, 暖温性种类最多, 有139种; 暖水性种类次之, 107种; 冷温性种类70种; 冷水性种类5种。从栖所类型来看, 绝大多数为大陆架浅水底层鱼类, 有193种, 大陆架岩礁性、大陆架浅水中上层、大陆架浅水中底层、大陆架大洋洄游性中上层和大洋深水底层鱼类分别为41、34、29、15和9种。纵观历史文献资料, 发现黄海鱼类群落结构和数量发生了很大变化, 目前以鳀鱼占绝对优势, 传统经济鱼类如小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)、太平洋鳕(Gadus macrocephalus)、太平洋鲱(Clupea pallasii)、蓝点马鲛(Scomberomorus niphonius)、鲐(Scomber japonicus)、带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)、镰鲳(Pampus echinogaster)、鲆鲽类等在渔获物中所占的比例降低, 昔日占优势的大型经济鱼类, 逐渐被小黄鱼幼鱼、皮氏叫姑鱼(Johnius belangerii)、六丝钝尾虾虎鱼(Amblychaeturichthys hexanema)、细纹狮子鱼(Liparis tanakae)、方氏云鳚(Pholis fangi)、玉筋鱼(Ammodytes personatus)等经济价值较低的种类所取代, 鱼类物种多样性和资源量呈下降趋势。因此, 加强黄海渔业资源管理和多样性保护工作显得尤为重要。

Based on records of fishes from the Yellow Sea found in literatures, databases and our own investigations from the 1950’s to 2011, we summarize the species  composition and faunal characteristics of fishes in the region. A total of 113 families and 321 species have been recorded in the Yellow Sea. Among them, 139 are warm temperate species, 107 are warm water species, 70 are cold temperate species and only 5 are cold water species. Based on records from the literatures and fish databases, the habitat types of Yellow Sea fish species can be grouped as follows: 193 continental shelf demersal fishes, 41 continental shelf reef-associated fishes, 34 continental shelf pelagic-neritic fishes, 29 continental shelf benthopelagic fishes, 15 oceanic pelagic fishes and 9 oceanic bathydemersal fishes. Since the 1980’s, fishery resources in the Yellow Sea have changed in terms of both species composition and biomass. Engraulis japonicus has become a very dominant species with a high current CUPE, whereas it was relatively low before. Some small and less-valuable species, such as Johnius belengerii, Liparis chefuensis, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Enedrias fangi, Ammodytes personatus, have also become dominant species in Yellow Sea fisheries. On the other hand, many traditionally and economically important fishes, such as Larimichthys polyactis, Gadus macrocephalus, Clupea pallasi, Scomberomorus niphonius, Scomber japonicus, Pampus echinogaster etc., have lost dominance and now exhibit a low CPUE. These results suggest that fishery resources in the Yellow Sea have been over-exploited, and that more attention should be paid to the effective management of this resource and its ecological protection.

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