生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (2): 117-126.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08273

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物同质化研究透视

王光美1*, 杨景成2**, 姜闯道3, 赵洪涛2, 张志东1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院烟台海岸带可持续发展研究所, 山东烟台 264003)
    2 (北京自然博物馆, 北京 100050)
    3 (中国科学院植物研究所, 北京 100093)
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-28 修回日期:2009-02-19 出版日期:2009-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 王光美

A literature review on biotic homogenization

Guangmei Wang1*, Jingcheng Yang2**, Chuangdao Jiang3 , Hongtao Zhao2, Zhidong Zhang1   

  1. 1 Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research for Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shan-dong 264003
    2 Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing 100050
    3 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2008-10-28 Revised:2009-02-19 Online:2009-03-20

生物同质化是指特定时间段内两个或多个生物区在生物组成和功能上的趋同化过程, 包括遗传同质化、 种类组成同质化和功能同质化三个方面。近年来, 生物同质化问题已引起生态学界的高度重视, 成为保护生物地理学的一个全新议题, 但在国内的相关研究较少。本文从生物同质化概念的发展历程入手, 对生物同质化三个方面的度量方法和驱动因素分别做了介绍和评述, 指出外来物种入侵和本土物种灭绝是导致生物同质化的最主要原因, 其他能促进这两个过程的活动, 如环境退化和干扰、城市化和生境同质化等都会对生物同质化有影响; 生物同质化具尺度效应, 在不同生物地理区域以及不同生态系统和生物类群之间, 生物同质化程度不同, 主要驱动力也各异。探讨了生物同质化在生态、生物进化和人文经济方面的影响以及生物同质化与生物多样性保护的关系。最后对我国开展生物同质化研究的必要性和需要解决的问题做了探讨, 以期能推动生物同质化研究在我国的发展。

Biotic homogenization is the process whereby the genetic, taxonomic and functional similarity of two or more biotas increases over time. As a new research agenda for conservation biogeography, biotic ho-mogenization has become a rapidly emerging topic of interest in ecology and evolution over the past decade. However, research on this topic is rare in China. Herein, we introduce the development of the concept of bi-otic homogenization, and then discuss methods to quantify its three components (genetic, taxonomic, and functional homogenization), and their driving mechanisms. Species invasions and extinctions are the root cause of biotic homogenization, whilst other habitat alterations that facilitate these two processes, such as en-vironment degradation and disturbance, urbanization, and habitat homogenization, also influence biotic ho-mogenization. Biotic homogenization was tempo-spatial-scale dependant. The homogenization degree dif-fered between various ecosystems and taxa, as well as in different regions. We also reviewed ecological and evolutionary consequences and effects on human dimension (economics and biodiversity conservation) due to biotic homogenization. Considering the distinctness of China’s biodiversity, we suggest that it is time to strengthen research on biotic homogenization in China. In our view, the most fundamental need is to estab-lish open, reliable databases to foster biotic homogenization research. We hope this review will stimulate bi-otic homogenization research in China.

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