生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 566-578.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020124

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以兽类为例探讨我国陆生野生动物疫病监管中面临的问题与对策

肖治术1,9,*(),张礼标2,许磊3,4,周岐海5,孟秀祥6,严川7,常罡8   

  1. 1 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室, 广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室, 广州 510260
    3 中国疾病预防与控制中心传染病预防控制所流行病室, 北京 102206
    4 清华大学地球系统科学系, 北京 100084
    5 珍稀濒危动植物生态与环境保护教育部重点实验室; 广西师范大学广西珍稀濒危动物生态学重点实验室, 广西桂林 541004
    6 中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872
    7 兰州大学生态学创新研究院, 兰州 730000
    8 陕西省动物研究所陕西省秦岭珍稀濒危动物保育重点实验室, 西安 710032
    9 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-28 接受日期:2020-05-05 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-06-23
  • 通讯作者: 肖治术
  • 基金资助:
    河南南太行山水林田湖草生态保护修复试点工程(济源项目);中央林业改革发展资金和中国科学院中国生物多样性监测与研究网络运行项目

Problems and countermeasures in the surveillance and research of wildlife epidemics based on mammals in China

Zhishu Xiao1,9,*(),Libiao Zhang2,Lei Xu3,4,Qihai Zhou5,Xiuxiang Meng6,Chuan Yan7,Gang Chang8   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    3 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206
    4 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    5 Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, Ministry of Education, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Rare and Endangered Animal Ecology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi 541004
    6 School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872
    7 Institute of Innovation Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000
    8 Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, Shaanxi Institute of Zoology, Xi’an 710032
    9 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2020-03-28 Accepted:2020-05-05 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-06-23
  • Contact: Zhishu Xiao

摘要:

近年来, 新型冠状病毒、SARS病毒和鼠疫等新发和再发性动物源疫病多是由兽类及其媒介携带的病原生物直接或间接感染而引发的, 不仅对人类健康和生态系统平衡造成了重大威胁, 而且威胁全球公共卫生安全、粮食安全和生物安全。结合我国重要陆生兽类疫源疫病发生的新情况和新特点, 本文重点总结了我国以陆生野生及非野生兽类(家畜为主)为重点的24种重要人兽共患病的监管情况, 并对这些疫源疫病的监管空缺进行了分析。由于病原生物的种类多及其感染传播方式多样, 我国人间和动物间疫情呈现多发态势, 新发和再发疫病防控面临严峻挑战。从目前情况来看, 我国重要野生动物疫源疫病呈现为多部门、多层监管的局面。全球化贸易剧增、非法猎杀、非法交易、违法违规养殖、滥食野生动物陋习、检疫环节失察等导致了当前我国野生动物疫源疫病的传染源头和传播链错综复杂, 加剧了人类与野生动物所携带的病原接触、感染和传播的风险。极端气候或灾害事件频发以及对新发再发传染病的认知不足导致难以从源头做好疫病防控。针对上述问题, 本文提出了从源头加强基础研究和全链条监管来积极防范陆生野生动物疫病疫情的对策和建议。

关键词: 野生动物疫病, 兽类, 疫源疫病防控, 空缺分析, 基础研究, 全链条监管

Abstract:

Recent epidemics, such as the COVID-2019 pandemic, SARS, and rodent plague, pose a major threat to public health, food security, and ecosystem balance globally. These epidemics have all been caused, directly or indirectly, by pathogens found in mammals or other animal vectors. Based on the status of recent terrestrial wildlife epidemics in China, this study summarizes the regulatory and monitoring mechanisms for 24 important diseases occurring in wild mammals, captive breeding wild animals, and domesticated mammals in China, and then identifies gaps in regulation and knowledge for these zoonotic diseases in China. Due to the diversity of pathogens and their transmission routes, these zoonotic diseases have had frequent outbreaks in recent decades, and preventing and controlling them has become one major challenge. Currently, China’s important wildlife epidemics are monitored and controlled by different levels and directives of multiple governmental agencies. The increasing global trade, poaching, illegal wildlife trade, illegal wildlife captive breeding, consumption of wild animals, and lax quarantine processes have led to complex chains of transmission, increasing risk of contact, infection, and transmission of these diseases. Additionally, the frequent occurrence of extreme climate events or natural disasters further complicate the prevention and control of these wildlife epidemics at their sources. Based on these problems in managing and controlling new and recurrent epidemics in China, we propose some countermeasures and suggestions to strengthen basic research and whole-chain supervision in order to actively prevent terrestrial wildlife epidemics.

Key words: wildlife epidemics, mammals, prevention and control of epidemic focus and disease, gap analysis, basic research, whole-chain supervision